A Nation Of Their Own

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ? )h0qF :b)@HqN" LRSF( c QKE0RC+T{d9>u4SRkarl <{cYx)pdqk;;߂aݝƳ> x'٦ݖf=5cYgА1MO]E$>jy4hżHu8o-@B{Jnj#8X-Hb&_x{Vbڎa;ЮsDYt(KS0J4$Hx {(}O lyg]/DltMuz2GOx~ CeIo|=sx>M¿h/Ov%aekFN:~ )oi~ó>ʳ[ּq-wix|Id pOq_ *eŒTcj =97_!:~ZjmC-'[=5HA?Jж5[2Mw )?S}Fg5_xR p?kr_IG?9#ыϱ}p,mrx3!T85|k.,VWDoOq3VFvVp0ӉLL#?Jj<4CyZ{+?|]u%vzTkѭ6X PA׉z[twҽ/F\9U8{*G*Q#v  pe55یZV7/F̅ U CN=:qxv-|eTxPUҼōwk+'.p2I=5^ZjvBGEu2S^ڞJ2o[{W`Fsyn7axj [Ep`G^kZYOx:JQƟ39:iЭr\U,?r1o!h^7Vm\i:D'uc\oGJmB\r0A+5QPQz# oK ^ no3 ,X=r 3^&_f?1w/l.A6qg1HVViUXgT/{,tb IeA'𥥼Kk/)KShQ@fe/saߴ_Zt,~G?xFIZ4H``v Bi?>moz$ۓ?%x44)$=*s\)tȐlKrG&[~>$0v0 TUadR&['_Z]]/YLVL}pB&:gYJ\Mn~ ,TZRu >.H/ h։ko"5|j-03YVO f2H>}'g:'<;6'Yywַzryn A>xW4xvǔ6JD>Ÿ,T&Zj׊ pYec0lкc=bCQIsFbv=4XW9+^tY,HI<_~e//z)+|i;KIZؠmi^x zz[Hx9mc-gC?ThOD8= UF8U"`9SW̟>-rZ Xkc*]Z~WFŦiYBE0\3A )P5>Ÿ|7L-57:E.8ztRG2+*rJn-;1h,%ݵFK1RQoD'-& HWC~(PE.(bQp)RS ƶ(Rcڹ.})أ iqKz(XLRbEhbQp)ؤ E.(VRQpQv)1Ea1F)hJ}\\(; 61@%%;+ E.(a1E- hRP+ H@=yQab6?βnˬCӜAobwd򣆻Sˬ"B眎\gdwggBZWxeHXꗱ?+ ln @W_HR`QpJr @}Oz2a^vqMXCȯF)>iw>S{Bfzqw,j.mA5;SH8sWW^ >Em~LHPXZ #a"¤yZ-K; c XPjȳxf< 9qSZ#FݗD ^֧:閪5M0b:}JFѵ +M:Wt.$c䟕U`2}2}5k^jkPFz:OʰvpM4h#Ie&}\b8voME2d☱s,*躈:R{L]'{.|᥍9R{ }sКKHIX`U'{8IKIB?VV5!ˊQ*χn4&C~k 6n,8x kQnah7}SMo"cqާri adM緙ӡj,. 3nU5ɑ `v.#]1aXS։4cy?Z6ݿ#MY'.e U5Dp!VyY$gd}M^ϏƋ.iR(mj19O֝OC8;Zda#mIc pدS5D{\xb* D*:M0׭mƚom.[w!Ylu-pǦ kWGMKK>c+=:TEvϮ~1`Go&dMc\o[d%M#R"(T-ٻg־W {@ңRup"fQ00Q~kSNG҆ H#Ѓ]T=bvyuc([_;~֐~qolk|\ȗ7p[^{VXɂ}M\):ueN]tDdy5uφy_++/| ?p῭zsMW E-!a(KLP+&)h,&(-n))ƊbIKErAa(R@%R@XJ)h,%aa1F)hV( Ja))Q..QSF),6u&(&\,7bbb)Vh>..QLPi)E;qXJ1KEN怰Ra*m&Lgr2"ڌ}5&J5|zuBCw$hG5E.R1NJ>cÎ//.2 Һ2Sxob}A7[rOkETcu9CtЎ}W+? KT 5_n^.8\#V7Ft{|(sK.DYK `&hA/ֻ{yWá^Mӵλ7c'8< I3֚Hj6͞O&#U;}L䁐^d_Z6U>a^S oFrZN0QX[Sczmv^@cc6;J.F>RgO^@;qRq ڞ. dcgT [;ܡ*yծsB+Fykz]ӪSu2inEmXI!v\MFB}EB4l75j? yr)B;i*@hY>LDz=Fk2O \/ r U@N=%1)[3a(^_~ _δZ[Ig+VHLN^zǂqiw,4ֳaT]z u[[i'["ؗ ;{` >N 9mGPG*nEpob.>-0;j{?JKy 1Gؤ=#E-n*r?JoVCyͼ:|i;s"K=qLJ0~ݱ5 I)ӥW<,b2:m#w[1twij<Ġpןk]ލ#$A%Qrv6nS]vXaczӮ#)F $X]|\!!ԆN{4&3k=xOv,ԳnGn3 8?^U0K`H9_?bYxs"ǠlJ-\4Z|I`=&uhGN?:/?S5+u]rltrNzW+6y.tuޓSOi$Ѵ{fTF3u׉|60jq0HD8 ϚԻKM?SdxI$U7\W;'UL!{cs_1[A[ŭ'co>Q[z__$e}eq)2Zmi/2\IŤ1:p7tZ_m3ɒNǾ;WMR$\QH E.(a!bRmQEa#ڟHiN(c ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( JZ((Z(R@XJ(R@XLQ\Qa)1KE0Q@7bF(SA\V9_ ]2@IOOaV%8٘i΍AV&d &zقTPg* t1U9L0"d*<N+O?%mZ%fX#90a5A ~U1bQ]YߨGҖbh [R~I7 "f\]~ӧY˟§U)P__t 3ݮcowF* aЏj* ֡d־[pr0z3/$waN\GNo_ּAw:D 8'7~g-6:=R4 hXXj7*z4p0__g~gl? u=5Ѫ**=W#NmR.+έumkfq}`.fkS#>WYI%f'nf9EPQKJRъRRLV .( XѢ+((((((((((((((((((J)h7R#2^Qxtiq+|T/?ܯKp>xjNZγOuL,k>#Z8O'<}^ЪL(Fs*;ظ95QӓL$ {{wCz61z'Y^V+3x'|1淊PrxQ5WSk q{`JcTXgs ]6`ykt- JAwX/_K_LX*Uo\ |r]{7vR4n;2/޵ ߕd;Yd~#QҮcD.ZUI~Ix{Xua ƻ ^,03[I]'+}-oejaX0~9(dVl~KuX$ҫgzok#fRv2zu =*R0IsRKH̀{үT,mՕn]w6_apC[= @Csn>wfmBXW'5✪B@axY!`7HB8[J ,8< AulX&rFpOQ^[u-xk˾0Y~I?+㸽Ԯɗl)$}uR rϙd(@Jw7%HKQ3ΗiIQ9/0CwvL8,g#늚YCy \f݃$gv)B+DJ aXܣ ct5[-Se9$;dw+89^΂kM?>ӭ ;y 95񏌴xPy;iJp~0^6Y̫/or{wecz|@~!N*SQ.K~b~^mkN8q+++(ޚCn۽~z1+BzH-?=jZQfMnȦ6ZJE%- Q)hQE0 (XLPih+ E(RzN9JȎ[E8[dZ7О(OD(((((((((((((((((((((((0'Ay20>ײúD JFpN:qQR1)ާ7sy#tZ==ZIž!#F^ӤA59+} 苗 ~~H VPQ*R:bJJ7֡iHG|עšè40HVo~Īs>]|K@Z ٽNkM!A5FE6>݇EԬ>i"20Rխ]5vB"iѺrѝi֨)ixeسCuI*LYQːUukcb!qj$yrgOY1Oǥ+7bdQE1F*TMڞ!ǥ.dTEp 3R,,zS2HV6Kx}0s5T"f;O违a^ mf.g#B`V'ۈ&O•-F)"0:T7ֱ.n"Vw L[嬒sqPjU4ѼDgn⑦:~\i1lc 8c?Ƹ_XivW$×AyVZs#oۇ`~YQG ? u"x Z/J> e=kHլ8fbs]Uͬmu ͵&VV zu]0V7sDt{e2xd6dO5 XrH>t4i02JY. *r;V4 *f8 k |jiG $70ч@}RWfnbbpqq 05X-5 c 0J[nMxUL/ IM=pZ@m;t0i}I>g'}?1Tڇ[wa s^6 Rh0KO#aZ4υ7O\dn8 1N[đ1KDnoU5ŷZϙ;H@ W 4->^go(6ўx]m.]_J-R-e\nݻk|C8F+Su_;oCl=Eiwc8F"vF=GWKያMȳKre+nI5m}c? 'f[:sqƿWSQEvEQIE-Q@ KEQERR@Q@Q@%-QEQ@ KERRPRPIEQE-PQE-PIEPIEQESS/Puh㦾N9cdS nzҾjH*SSi8IF=ټ/o]0 G#zc<-y'=Gj]zvƽ#n_ºFZ=N*5tt@ d7Rj4ֱLmaqVA$Fj3IsfߪKvjif 9rMgi"4D!b(TY%Y.DJ؉*ÑtEߌ?jk|輝?3$>)Sݙ|bw ¾D25Ą3x3Xsa+@VBֵuҺ>6ww}bE3<*@9#=#8#EQ+d, KCֽjA$W*-xiW?+⯏OUţ xc=jTr]柘O֧6UVKUnJ4kq׊ )-j=YWgܖ2;Y?y7_U 6ʡ; ݯn%)nn[8cU$dg"Zi"\dzG<Fj;xpwcY:ܿzW'E~ꎚ3Krp]K:͵3@,.Md$`Cd`,sWþ lv:ϧ^!FqAwP=+>;(R駈s Te˱+JMOoς B܆Y n<9 -5""P0$F~K׳⥻x+>8ZoiJE&,e8~#գѴ4<Oa_ i|QymR_26oʁ^x:#-:Zus&ZY$c ,{5 #VUdxAY] oabsrFW֨H!: Y'꼔4-bnRS)*@piξ`8tU3`YGtctDt#''d*_C|1R+n 6v{fmU̞/1< ϴƱFk.WC?(t>U-Wʚfy@QzfӚ)d%_YTC.v$gw+/.nU'sRNJeqv 2C V@^%m wxETtpq{k:aG$ҊSDZaB7x[WM.U71큌VfM-̱z|CuA G!$~BNWk:=_Ki&}_Ey^T%uLxk/mBrF {Wki=w+ˣn(:Gb6! 0f+ey9 »MQU7(z))QEQERREQEQEQERRE%QI@ EPE%-RREQI@ EeA`Ԛl$1(^q[Erđ&HIMsM& {Fqվ4ڏ}bQFC(Aۨ]ҒX-.Pq\ZZQ^6ymr|;Y;Wh}]Eui(IdRR9azUeO_} l=kr;UvLqnQk@'c֙ >STzh,TI QڥLiRhY'$'sX4ч.FQ<ʰ#ZTWsc{Z\(.y\kYei"eN[]&/<[SQt% wA,w^  |rߺ ׆Z4N3RIl}[,;Qײ׊~r> -<{W Q2 FW=5$vt2ȑF+"c|q^ [ZWp5$Fܧ:oW++XcK;EWOL׏]7 I8T[Jw|{UI@=W ~5A<{Ͼ+X&δJʚ48C0!FAy`Ǘwݐ~_|%~΃$G_q:g-m,AEWuvqr.RxҽF-]*.N_|qߞ̷>^q+1xP֫%"`yFqO} k;xr8eԵ7ŧۃ@Uh%R+DWXxgTg[yy`dgOYk6FfGzxf}ȟ~UjM&AsSwF&u_z85Z H榸LN{8YdC95r fNܜMm#4- W,4>Ԗl 71kv'[绕c֯l.Flj=U^YַOm} ,90CОZgfm;qDw(` o{I4 ܎*n>T}$eF_)*U`DIݛh9 []̱Yv-9}Iv`^6TieWGE[i8m( ?)_ Gʅ=$Zぺ: =cdmN~UU#kL{q6~ VQX&w hxb#oy#Ֆ-H%C5d̐D e'Oek/mNErnz(pZld#ӥ_]N"9N|WVHnkX<$8A͵=˼v2 X\]VVYRjD<R*$8@*6%ѝ%o(&97 [~U. &jY-:#E =Q.VUz+(vs|FYȎSE)tH \c8;Ubn.OFo.ᥝur~rƊ?hWRf+|BUx_kǯ_IԂ︥S٣֨)>0+FqOw2\&9agi*RmWMOֆEk_!.Y-$9#ƽ;njgbjef!@׃˭뷖G9<ʝ&Q)A9)Z,QpbB< nG,d#?>գ6 vUH]]wS;;^XLDǨ^?,"ބ6e|AdϞ-nu b{$X.yoJMޥ5,z 9loeqy RGJe弖qzߘϕhp5[yV$<0"BHf[B\/g׍%.cKk KeF,ҼCvK@Gc[RHhrNrvQ'ti?H4FVYPЃ^?-yzMDErNCN9dko%sf%smz_:noZqn~daң{WRgv0;_BI*=s]<y+,u,0+[mY#2 ' ݏW1-"f3ս~!ﮬXo*@v:{0ycna@''= I5 z]+(eee8*GB=o7!}nSSe?l&ót-:F=@xr$gzT<Ϟ\]}#¾&_h6"2dqksgĨ|is,VwNl9W?OЬZP]50INwyr;_\ %.- Dn 2r@ȳԍ nT:+N{2|c12qQVO`+j7KFl" ʹsS]4[$ש}ď:SxOmJO$c}"ï?*K*\m$tH|).njW= /5ꄛ[_u(gS[U?ELwG ?^{km. ۼ:51[#P6ԏ(HۊMCZqn=2@ .;kjhcOsZfR ۞Gִu6B3ʡsWExvkZG,'=:ˁQ]jSͰ ` qkn:l.1d x4u00!4UܨBx?:$y9,ʼnM3fq3Ëuk5djշ4%8E';hE \josSӼ)Z$r:\FТURj/IBSQKC&/#[ YyVp-YѴt^{[`.9b;ӴMqʥI_VAeq#v#hjx:dgOJGLRoHyLJ2u[F-<pGּ?Q.sYuj/Xq0F#ҪӕG'm XJ9ugX AO4~gRbh[WM\\_ONxd$Vu'9{ Պe3XUm$=iZWdlY*!r'<9v *RLkmdpY]cU1۽T4n]U G +O/x._ ~)A=֝. pIV )KvJSMBձ5=d s\zgaX].O7K}4TINOҵ)6c?izom./ՈQbo]ZuHttO _}ƽNIcs9>Z.+]DeحMsCcuv_ᛤMګV5BK˰U@Rog"~$Y墁z#:rMmjΛ{J.0HWTK]1YwIQ>2=[#w:C`!^ >ps?Њ 2fEL2]OV4vc_|LU[I Xxv%'<YYW_1OxHƳ33[C O3xp%Zmf$i$c+样G\s{fbm(t㐀$ʜph;uJGG2k6fM.-duʟ¼^P\,\Ͽz40H7GyC2d2\u(օW$ \Vٺ۬xP1[Ớ-kTp6\W77z}M9w"'VV^r%ў@Sw~io{\ҡ[>Gϸw{ j據uFPk4Z WGvҞ99:Hn\j/ xVD 9*#5R*+RMVuf.--.Ja߉dqwʧϝ/&Hc%$0?s#Ƿ`5G͌i{T~#:6aeQ,>} yzĚOc!~yjj7]A}d%qw{Vԩ&n m ;gm܄qld|qH⼲bFn/\xT:dSwC)RI)iSiĪ0Rm3jf}F  rWzmۼCLJV3o7+c>IRYS 7ڮ5Z׶^YW<䃗Mop%ͼLYEd8晘u cẃ]5_nen<99䔧|. ٝ:~|e A'5sKX߯# bDA9*0}q[BoTF(No_F{WeGq夲K13rGZкo漧)|)uy #ЪGb渥RQGDiBI;qkip e{݆sQ"v%y%G5{W*4ca+ 1Ҵ>h7zfyk"6*9mK+ [ol#< kEWQW"Y"`t&m)R#wZĺֹ{G<-pJ <-ZXNEϕ6=֮\la\w=T-U/nl[.k̼OE)a˭j̟,j8?m:h2iD2YV$AIˡ Rc1]GOn-nAN+KY#ʹZ񟆾H5]Sƞo(eŸ{1WuxG7{t`$N~\`H'Nhӹ+s^9Q[+zÓµ<77,d6,rjO6qs.p3ZG{21ȢՄmݏ5Op]Y7Ј卆pT`=?xelsNjh7=,˶Xd%_F-s$ѴQ1ȍJ{fN.\n*9G9j3!.vGM^r@y)XJQN+{Iy8^bzQ{IfMt%xU&J$[&Xu dϒG#tNJ!SG3d!C?1$k|̯ (A S 4 Ү-ĆtswyTa\ ~5|:8t2I yKcw#W4`0Qޛ ibU)s#/o4g3ۼF>7~WyoK'F03ۀXoZkM0Hq3ICSbUhYn[CF?t㚕يFW QIpErSѳ)VHk/?bcQ}O< xQ۳1Sg9hlK5E =s[~AV37–^o[o{xN(.Gp!Ǯk8wȦg=XsDbtCXYoh q+x >cXGWbBʱW4&G{c6F9>[;>ꒂieSxiy.]sɦK9_SBZʚcBOsdAWԟXG.DAu'z5M:YXR6vퟭyN8M`ִ5V?k#7^ zӻ<٧N 1kѳY^3ŪA}n{y&G[IԥIbgeP;zU:a1\ $u9^+c+{-vd(]PA|nm Đ9 7\^⾗ԭ[uR}K5`^pʽi%Owsw0țIRD W xy6_BitӼtr A/Ԣ x 8nԬKj\ wZiCm3PJQ%e KMY7c+Ԝn8lϗߞQ Y o5rD zNy+;I?5<~Qi?ً._dP3j% UˌU lxe$] )s2#Ln'jP&%%QKuu<=YC,}%V*j[DJǸ\=V<ٵn1'>NC *;+5&8}YѬ6<3.5)&,?VC^kha%2.eix,V‰doj379=Mn-YP01TG-+f+)pwє$+Yxct m{až¾R᥵t=Ni!#*Z8쐕P 3u?qUUU- U*jŭ%t[j\O?jep 曮_4[eDCm9ek.+Q9jzJyǢlӤ9FGDl4m2ݮ6^a]љV[] G0N{sGb}|B}ޱeGllF@8TXdDߍ`x]nK|=9{Ÿss+U޾go?Uy/_C^}wevR4dV*Miǧ6#B]yw:DF.ʹ(?XG]fO{w  {VeP5fr5ȏ<j2C(E$R[q|M<m Ak k|p rOnxM`s\g.TS )]sYJ06Ӏy<'' ;hB0C=G5Ŵҋ@X5!ăk(c_|Ege41I/KQTg,I@ڝwJǺ@:V\VFTBJU6a m?mi`MQi_8 cҺkiHbN+u/6Tؖ.ri6yxZ:UA_\[7j*x=+?xzS7mq0<0E|b(LH#W&cV3^~bikv8(-}-2ҟ >d0I̊#?Mu"i"Y(P.v=Ut_q{Ķ VX}`qϽqlΗ9}^Ϡx3PtՎy YL\j=˴7SO,YӗPӧ X:~5z6fQ-Y] '5ФyKI_C Kkhc Qh}`vv($͵ܪz7%{x2[JIرc72̪.A=ctr?S\}ޥ6k8`ԅ{V8 YC~u7𵿎>ϫ}t'ٞ"ke=8AA^>ú)U7M+Fe2qyF~iWoK n<3`C^dԬ-cO2*i##ǎ7i[3 Wz6UȞ룊kI浬i 71y/ɼc ExC:چ({b>)uZ\亾+ P00d\LJA,Z%RWb8g#, 1I) cbJR%yy>Tҹrv#"N:j=͙_$!П¨CR#T͞^m,&tBʶ| 9Uf"='$YqR osϰm K&Hk}A'P PPJOAj)EJ.qIaH`h@C\\GL/nOf.xkBJu^.u o9^*'}p̆ps-= s($v9+i-t `4z!gqЖ5;K;37\TF2eIV├ٱi;隤F^ukDG*}E|Ķq^W+9ݞ ~c+zny-S^Ң0\)hw 8e5{άnw>,ieʑ_p\wcS+xJ5Z3Zvdz59f qi4c8b|KE`9]*,q5{X=̚-]ȯ7rO)&sͥǒ$ k6LNҪ=7U[bv|6@ykHmNbڬVz*.@Ǽ%]iqF}sե6(@0YsƵl5zth.~Br$jġ}v 0M}#|/jʼndM|/pI'n awұűq%;$2 k#XKi UL Li q*c~ qR.{:vʀz m:i":V'b隯]ϧikK(w rePUcϱ/ї&v Z*/*_w+qwV"BHKq/δ~Emk"_zbO`>m-6UZ";~ԯG q.:/v,VZZ ڂ+ctc˯2$UKXw t!4<}(7hp+RzT&RR/:;Xtv0VoZ,6In+ۋjJ_ B8U/ɓ\Pq/UYE3:j& z59f3+eD_tzͮs؎P?Z'Vצ? Y1D~G)Yd+O H]IsxM(&v6Æ5B&9rNgDrzRY2 XygǶiؚ?"w*f1~ +VƮhF˻G-\ ?o]޲1cן l.fYB9*SXE"7.sZW2̤q>V;p]Q=*>ρk7uic1IGZdTM|+.bOlf/ 8֪mh&d[b;'> ^kx~}COl.0B#J3]4$sW!ʙe7t}Rĩn" 4 .Gg2NV+; Fƺ7&o:0=~i 38W ;|("%-jMz-*3MM^}Qҷ4| +^[:̞n̺뷀^{ӥ<ה,3w߽uQW<Ƣ4RAy޻o EnVf|+InG1O2Ջ,Ye|ǩCsp/RM_%e [DğrI>!o@M6'8 M?e+]ϡ |d:<2~'EܟQ)ЬaOۺ>Y^Otw1 qcXZ_mOl|Tq6mMbb8UBg?Ns _6뻭Egp.[ v v6ךZ~ u;$5QIGPsi#hE8Aw2a]w y?Z–^<4ͺs\Vy1ؘcoV6M nGZ-T#:.ES=1:]uJ39'TmGT.fHTňjMFhg_P3S|#S &b:(Tb?P*tsjE{Oouֶzձ-dYH*1¬1ux/Œޤտy I:`+e|iG?"n%g8_Y}yeҡ7!}a  3g5RҢ&%FI7smksV3Fo\2 rB zu^m>_m.$m[mSeKNprr2y8 _S}[ip4k&f?,C#`z J^kiMg3ӊ n`dn#U̞R 9a$sZ GS2dAֳs=ai9u6hCA,*rpFzWHaE*Hu!ֲ4[Q+iL=krN7#%)۱YNoDRDab[R9Qu8*ÑSɶ8K-[^(n4j0vB"sU⚧5zM8tb`ի !f*~Lq5NªxF|cMXԹԉ;E2Dv$/CR|h]I`=*Rb_3\Υ=5wVau% Z.J@Rp3_J pUxWijhdavIXRj ֔&-bXК6.mȿ.X5Yfh ßjdTwu vOp;3Zl4 x`:^Eզ]Ҽf JL=ԿgXz1n{A3Hİ.du%1PgپW:37sΧF;׏`i<*zR&T|ҶzܽkbK,p&\?.kPr|;fiyxINqVJ$7U~5NyX8ohZ*8@lf -EU7Z.YyHAa(dN0+dˊRMY#7C[)oyUDk$`CMM^Bw8_=84 khFYI:֧.esQ0+Y*8s*%>kī&Qb+rSQma`Y0\kGKd$q\5ߺa㭐E+b Uey<5qm`@HP޸vC]P>n5dPPw{㰷sμD %,Wk+'5s(Sc=`";Ozl3TN!U~Ϳ9&>+?+qG籆>J9ٍZeD֤3FŁ!\<^7q˭R12 9={Id&sTn58a+1㔜֢j&s PsgfVЌԊn>Ez%/!f_)?'ҕYFZ&v-knIEkB$m5cnN hֱdtw/M9wtnT**E)JiRlsª tyorWCet4Zc /)K3l|?ww9<|˵+R=E W0c=k.dN3Q(:QQ}JI\>@n_Rziv !Y (0S91RkؚѧI< őI4$$*Rq\2|D ӥ|EwIWdB3IjN>ƺ5\ZðAr*RQiJ4'}RA"XkO#$$bW#*K&޽Uغű3hՏ\:٫Nojm= IA/>4\҅Huu26e𽎃ֶWu+n&!@'։xn 7wsH!G'?÷\oj%E+1 gL`uҽzb<Oc'TvvC1T$1 [k״XS&f̓=]o:Vݼ;\ޫP,s* 8و(r=m;c\CQ$eʐI=ӵyu%\3b}IB$i w5>cYb+v1CM~_8fxNZ4u̗}s 9kXξS({/ Ia`cۑN~%cuȠ;I g~ Ξ#uڊgVT;? ³8{VR, \׆|H|YeZhSI$67PZ/WisJ] `e$w< ُAfpg^-1-[(E5`cgj)4yN¬CF*~Xdٔ3U&rWSP̓񚤑!C3PݞdE%۟L%ddXn=LU.՗޶Qz"rP 5tQޒE. n8ڰ.nJ&AV,m[|pWp SĤ3C3O]@ud1#1k֙(%nU8#R ;6$};Ph~5AQ gcJwN-6~5$3nVH Ie+5QryOoY;gm#{˂g!(6_?h2Ai%o,-#]@#zW*%COChBRsNN8q}uSQ/p{tВp!Z}u 0ӔPz+J)J<4XL)͞f2\7{dʃڰ5=PD0zXڕ({JASgVC;%ψX40 d-|) x[H繯~Ms⿶J[r}M}-I喹+IN.J߱x:0e=4j%!e#"l(O xg8<榝TsIRjV04,l 7u7)41&VYYl8c޺+|)Hw5b'Mck({Kv #yEiku-Ē접T˶[4Hyhugn+bBPx]ۮ- mڿ?-[>'dҮlrUenoȥ7h <1j G'2ȋHj׍eU0<xy7oW$rdZ _['㚝~F,*5Z/xYT5᤺]_jҧ\ ZPOĆh$p'.ܳckk7^DSoN|c;"䲱MtCi($G`GQdʒzhmï OEPvѐ=~fLՑLmyzxѿv[uZ?.Xʈʴ][wJ3;WՅHܷ]f2Bp+][KDzZ>Y {ן_lKHo-ךm#ݎ~sQaܝ!E+nT"Ǖ޸ TڡL՘R%;wzܩ?#&]YmWIbinR>N?Ej0nPMÏLV+)]hywƯY[[LO1@(Î쓋Z@s滿uj'nlĆH$n"s5xg+٥xCͫiKRĿ)GzD(?Cn|FB>&EW6l5<*sam%-@p=ƼvR[%l N~t?JIUDcjⳝ.[џ:k6:>&}iS2rO j}eoMnx|IGI K-3 `rZGRM=d/G|nJbҠ5v'ݗ6%$!{y4F/M()|R ݠ"z|/2T듰0 g4[[#HՊ[t幱|g'֤9/w?gim\mċcXDЫSR=cr2MN g3_7u-4M?ꬡ\ MojL$Ju;OuyːBLkm{T>rIVr=gQ<GZi-rU#o!!铏¼sw[Lҏ!\9qkִ@ڕ&6%(yeD@aRvμ4m+;V[ $e!@9ȏ?Kcx`7qOכY{5b8ͺWrMy++ܭЕluKq8*_ɥ"!;}s#sj΄Ef}-_PcP xOd&Plת|X"rw +rUbv12\xRNSe_*ƍKHIo$V|9 Sk1LBҨb~WF̡GП Qxr+wu8{W ڣlC q6*+?Y!K+D1rkN)GNǒĞ$om&V>~$^'uÏC^_urG9 %"~߮XJIg;A\\u=zkLC;N3EW,DQrbft-Q^^)cS]͐[[Ұ?˸2ܜ тf=ɫ2zЄcrodN+i}M71w(]NzImRUaZ{Wy;|N$ V&)b0_Seo| rhzWk+sO+zH;*Ahmr֯S]#MVa,,|W▷'zeNqs@z}a~J>TʎUL./wIz~wVdILXڵv(ؾ}X!.Hc,N3WFGZdf*MG q sKmnl?b/f^| qF'Q~FY\Hp"ϥz&&HJT N+ / $^ͦ:hFjPW#?F%3ү tդ)*gn{ME(;qQ:3c>*Ny>= mكHW# A=j1n#,Jp,֋u Dm$j溋Ac 5KLZ&^'ZfYe8'J֒GZ񶓪M|1+$ؕ5kRh.Tbƫ,"<+ʎ ovVA|Ri%T$97}M*[_fkN1F9$b [;4{*ÞETRb6chז?Aeo t\d͓Ep囬֎J3sY zfrٚTPt~gUEk4b?keC#v=J@sOֵE%vN!+2nxׂ:t>è Bsk4,=Z QFUVCcʺ-X`@Ҿ8'$ׇYWnأ#\פ|V+4rx e]|lr?CPK18⢖@tg 3W)2]}Dd!n3Av,C<0nA#ʬ2M&*VGU$;0sZG b΋z^IDyAPA?J߃T7_5 wUuG< h\zyg >'qΊgh',N=ؼcj^M4{Plé*^9愺ҊgC0JṞ6ɠ-dܧ~~|d+0i 7xȰ"G|O!S=RYLjq KL& +ֺ^_E!V I [1e~OJMU6*ËbҔs2xy]jnڅkj^9̑g'̿oº/j񞛢9dؚ_^_{4s<=O~t-R?xH'\:ԋƧv<¹d]5`\,SIKGMGg_J?iC Q>7.dkkPmT??W Vuk(a;bs**yNImȨ7R]IkB)8^@Ϩnǧju)KSEVvoB4nFv1Jڬ3~T ]S,qUq7zeaЁV+&"TU iBn|7|h* #8sq!z+XʾJh 8#zn^Q%Is1?4n=q]ޛ>.4 gW-gahқ@,t{e/U]qkFKSsFeK+;d-*$xj;fXӋ1xd;i,g$H {UMQFCWg"RMWPv[I廢{VI "#OZT{m.Htk;4# 0ʪɪi%t̪vH ⻿ ~4?7WsW]꺅6ב~>UwZEȲk4Hpz#^^eZXƝSiJJmSWjb[|Fk˵֭r_p0)k\0Er\UNnǣVk[8\go#ռg|V6%-9 P} o "j٩+e1֋&t;1QO9lG# `H{ڙMR`̄|O&2ėmz♧w6p&Hԏ=+a<)y*:6;ܶ;4}FX{[:ya|ڼjn6ui̮zl2|9-^ zOrcOz6EJ Ⱦ'i(?XCq|׉ w# YT2U$y'7,-?4`Ӈݴ_^/ybUUZ\!Dk?VWQ9wa]t-bjv+Ƶ|p4b3Ъ0]d߆ڤ 'ď ǟW̟`|$U%^w>⯅];}VF]>a4tT%3^ܨ}]h`qu|Q$QJ^"MVP:Rl{V/xӺTWb%nTIE9R0s>[ ; yX94fPj;p -(WGzi+ ~Mi|r_< Ṉ]ZdQ^h/x{\dc%h(7bNV[׈5=6󨔯ʃ5^n.o?|wy={g[Z6PW=k:lފHO·5*KS* ə1N:aP&Աl/jH*; Sye$}ӚM?R줛 DNUG5gU -Tg8eeҰ|sPUzHOnbxf.y?:ޝ~Yž)ub;Nx>behLc?3taQ5SPlyu_Q6_ŷZe/m[pO΃0pxk<$)`C{BVp .'y-W0j:>yc(1<8#י2V2y% {aN+x˛sC)gHLoY@3Y #'" ZE+Vjk(b\A.%LccOGodi0 +M*n)\i'k`*'#U5ѓʻY9 W Pmn>Sgyk~O_9s)(܋G^j⫶a<>bFgB*[Srhj;32Srp3ּT\}z*cdn__Ir?2@HֿmJ%弖I A遁ܚ=u^'OgƋ[8#cb?JIu"۲W:Oo[22CB}|0ϰoYRyE|WBe>K}]m 0}kul4jmGĐ_mNK%M>_7iڻ_vHbQ FqV܉܊@W4JJINHHzN8w* xpE۔dldWMt_CR3cg ӭ&sWLnHMW(+*595 ܊mh4U1S+) QB)\] T2 t|}*R6v{֛iǩxyt; R[ 5i9t8~ ,XIr(JdJn,hz/ ,9WV_C]ܟ42Gpo(bH&[ b*m Sz_zrLVL⠟p :ʎgem3uT+Gnٗ!Xe~J-+ax'I+!CWa Ɱ%yZYYOD\7[KKy.|Kf@1֧ 2P~*9׎brI=#sj-/?iH^:}HotW3xK}\Ob2,xJSQ-޵c-vR[~uo&pN>Lhߎi"he5V~6t%Xnnێ:dnW vK$ȡ;Ft(pq5(.]{n_0'5R_K3gdI#5qHIz;rx.z4%6L߃:ݼd-q;ӣ#;r±$$n*)';N 'BaieO&;^k:Nd[Te;ݕj저ÌS1Z$'ROv渍CSԠQV s ~-xpZNeYy>.dr~Eݣ<8Zr 7qWÖul U)#Z@vOi(q睠T%=7/Ԗz%ˏ]L1* UNU$TP;I+ɒވhv,gź*61FA99 Z#RnMbh kl䎥j,SxrܴVqDpv$U'$p=j5h"1 1Z濶.6Kk9ʴn=HnHisFBzoePp)cHea\g;m]%SRR'\hfn=*5q,b]9 r:}i=V_xkANipa}h ~KLg3μO} ehRˌ:u>*x+k+#}7# v*T(Z|H>M`A m=]*ٲyU謟[x|[HDOtQڪzɝT43Ъ$Ȭk]-Q(UKb2A]32eiXtGҩϒ R1=Sb8-fwQϐn.eSJJ*ӚԒ qČAWR|b~kF&c+3+}5%)xk1DPόEVi:tI~j2AT@yuzjm>C:ezb T8 ݻgv!}65~Ƙf =!_U2 s&_✹STk]C)71DBy՘ >Zշ4촘 4&8_qw94Qn =??kqǣb0~Ҫ~bV皘ݻ6uӧykMf[Y%7R@G^ku̺u!O|`\^/>=c≾4+G=Q?P]DUr+?V90 g4ݓA˖ReMeS#@4۩4J;dp}8붽)7]Yյ9Y=Ϙb.(\2G>[3~jWZ>#d[T[J Wpsok>tYx[B6b2DCcX(΄\[Iyyii#%` YK}up+a-tExmQk*VvC,Ѷ8>U-վgdp+%ߎ9wwVrۧ]$}i7VY@9gޚx:58\MrMOibNis hh [NinaRiC,kqt[v=OA KZOϦ-v=[k_P}+L>P1S3v"U;s9!_*lֺ^xԫը5ts5(Vsq!V~Rjơo2^UHzS.IJP#4qvȣ=rw9maF1TAևmoN&lWAi"G b2 ZO:U1WuQ4MjcUdeu p1{VIQx)VHF ua#=G;D 8iٛB\υ{&kXK+]F}zŐcEcK=ԅ%dq*J%7Z "'Z Bצ(T=Fծ&XT8Kv0֗V ȇV}I ȭkݶAܥ1pjdEWH$UVeZ}{:%nPA!#5<s,r*PWd$JEQoscX$M*FKyT}1S`a#U$C< 5ěMX*ƛcB*Fo\d^.ͶGPjIU${uFJͨ-[-s1賞ORb9ֽ?'5Ør 7MYJGqRJJ=ߏs6ź%|U&Rj㚟QWv>{LU~`;zxp } ozR¸uKc&V» ;ҟ H@sֽ.,^G4FE[Z炏B38ԉ6g=} K0Q&>Tkjr,]%cė.?vW[F%CoǠq| n7 7`ǥXs("1SIj K Oү"İH>r~+{e3x[=sbԭr>TenTb1Y>ӄc/"ԓVz*Ni}~`^:U3zRE2+C" Qm=!"<ޏv+>}F: y\W4s.{*σtbri}~=q>Ԣ5KJfK[9eX'hou=I JcN>WО-to#ޘ q>9 KFu[/ #EhvF}FӇ+<HF\榎m좡$T$b2#JҲ3tвRv?ewNj%6ʌlohXs3Zޥh A69{7۶MsʒvG(S[7RK1)@$jx<LIs#; "sK+PE"9*W'4zWGZ6ˉQR-[VQ"&R\csv(/Rréjveexнʹm1y,*=2k#{ny(9;}@2ץS}\3{rdA_Iӷbaaj).v &ऩ8ϯcW-K4R `)#k;BM@nĴl:4O*?N[T6-5(dӿ$C#2渏FwZA cl @5G'-s(spdbMD Ui\f1+MV#cjLR#ۇr3[6WfS~``. '9#A7fGx$9nPԳUga%wT5ZGj0=)0M#4Dz]F*PZes\XZ=bRxrs>N4 a4C2J|N%8އ<b^Ⅼ+Z-_'`ޏÈ$z,D}GQ>^5팥W3Z ?woJG3o!%6~xs:Kc %}gcGk֬|"n+SUkkoȭ}wue?^?4.I;rj{YD 3[݅% .c)pqQOkwi)w:0MsSq=\w^Kk/I<;Ukr4o1#? J §V+)ֽYa=e_BޢRH%F8GkOL0C Fpק]0{Dc!FSּy5);l\dhė'1$1|"V|0W,zQP.pOZլ52p9m.kCqN/h,u-\楫]ђ[Ս%Hή.7dmߟFs$vʤҸ/ j(W?h-R295-o]cq\#~3;Xޠ➮yx;]"=ha"pU yI"y|1fxWRB<Ɛt Z3Ψ k1ǮkmAH+VhǑ2?jxa۽WF3Rn`n#ǵ 0V-o5͉:pdw#wS I uh0UxTUU2 1"FǮ*`}u?F4:gzScoED-y)Z=F򣟹𖘒'\,`}G,Z̅O>O\7v{fOvRVغsݘ.mbe˅imA1EYTCOh*nc΁ pk@8ֻn"0{P\}ܶ[ ?j\M\j&O.;hnwѮ t Vpy3cGj9}?HC,>{EI$7M}<|M^9[!sO]ҧVY# r+"ᭀɷ1 tĖqGO5vvdjٙ4O'<qk#zī3sWLdaQNF{Mm l0 .ǛM0ZɿUFL^ϭúKC^6ap'+3L>Uʀ~xiKʢ^ BS5'%ګL( B v pMwzxz4T1.(܌q|ViclWjQ$bͬ]7hcsuU7ZnX'.T oz ?>+4Yr&ǰ7 =DJ7%ȮbydTҩ?>cl yO2oEm:ʦQ/9PHnUJ; JQkLgڀBF04r'ޤ 6,:zSiSEESRGhhڐL4eqL"}! Al֦~PxOhCͼMbtVkhn1"R([-v^v&, qZztqCC#H,Ҷ<׆rGPKx|EzZXHѬ,0BJK緰E;w_jo Ƨnzv0d#2AQ?^u\c"iEܾՁK>bGN#ZH@#X0Ui$u(= ~F):ٹ*KvU#x 2IWÚDwҧw4)O{;Vg(R⮞C4>٫xkNM:\}X8++-tI=Mϔ5kz,QKG|t>ƹIB8_Mxı +t&tIm8q=ֺ]z*{|Cl-I!}+3:3.k2 _+[;Er%,(NJ7zr9?\汘n d2khm6%m>fxjn$HV<)_³t SP'N#ַ.㵳3jǰvgPeedN~DB=;rʐ1ƹ3JdzSiXc"-7vV'RYI4#oW $ѡ⻽F۫Fى ќ ך84Q$Dg|z1;2Uo,=֤o\`8ngUܮ={U_6S3H? G6q" zoQUP*͚dr[I?~`4`Rn[s*zM36G4HڮїQjTjQ <Ƭ;R s`ԸIlt*W |mGOm@ʇE^{ nڽG^@ѱJ0R~KŶYZ3(^G^s^q[ QײxL{m- ]yusXՋN̥j[Ks$4xB7G=jΡ,"Tu35һf]W & MDaf# >5)U{ I$޸Qx"*Pd.4[X#M'3>Y7-FHw*`P%~U=yfiO}\]f^kt%S8qGLuhwG<(LIFG=j?-rhP&bB" sZIk9Up394A.w𫏃VTEY1WX\'p%#h?>3BL_Z3#zFJhnwUHT\=P^InՊ,Q>T-&գo<+mԈiv 0& JEĬf@L1*f *x8VRx֔*O%^ǭEs*!U^ #+#G- 9Z"QvdJM$`QCh 685\BNsU%Ii9&b݋%jz Q\qV یd|\j]\~q$NXN8bⵯ ,jEtܙ`_p}^7A6ԖʬqD;( aEMGҤXی gS*Pr@\)* {Hbib̐Qvo @ZTmۑZi3P&!Fppj6ڐ\{[ƥ9>sui؀p :`q}<#.3d5RkړG%BϏ#\>إ JIZ+>p#50劲<1&f wekpHy%?p::Ř5AlWȻ>SskBu^3ߨTli%PcTK[̱ lGq\ ۺS:D 9?BZ\ZXP.vHX\Ii!/@38y~S\Vtw"2|;[jڙ I9BZ6R7k[":`WV&<⼜ה[) yOTgw8EFs.XcHVYRM8ޮ;.`e䯸T袻ċ{;QrqSVvP4Jn^qTtHJT}*O+!)RV8e[Zhe!NEy)\*䷭Fg=K(<(94 LP3~Gu/=%l,a=6ym⾑M!u 8+pD+l)!-+mze0ѽtS~-/QW},c+FM2\ڥl0U+qV#GYr>"nXDHJ9R7DM&t G,nc# 䑻?ŞqX/ҙ53oj@vbVn;Fsfρ6%4]oW$YD *g#.OQk&kG>T 1#ֽXf'9>m/afY&N8>ēsR2K'=@j00{\JoEhLeCh4N1M@a[/ ŵ攠4n!?s&SD~Q*EǭK&r9NJNJwBw6y梖..k^8B(*qZ҂w&o`i( WDڤ&qub8>^>r42zf>EAWPOV!՝*HhbCI潇^ ,4KH ޼GjN0B*&5t8gf{v((9wrjl 3+;p94; ^/\ڑF>#=;cްE,qd=c*ʓ#D 2ǥN,"ǁ+2讀>MB'H1lJ>RvwʹN G.q.풧=j&Mbw{1XQ-4lYPDbXJ Zlh : rPk̮DY_hāN1ڨs秐y8wNPJҕ>V,zfHpUL (fJJ&˕ wG+ݸ: `Hc2GXv4\k"zڑ_`Kpo[e1cV2q $ _.TӕIیu 1DTl'#y'2B;_$II9,diReF15߈.bԼG,6m<±K `ƲΤrHߍZD4)SN-);~F\؄܅.>n3^3yURR@){9c%I_rbJ)X^SMDl8[VuE\Z|;wi%H.Cn,Q#sn<^]R!FvZ;ݒ} MsrAU"2NIh6 ^>E7*>$@D{i4Ĉ(Zͽ..XsPLX9;N=CG=E;!:5(ggֽ>}呃~k^,6ytWvc*_\fX}x{QLZHVLXcKNJ(y?``g~KK՜JvHQ=1V:bv,fyUmUcEqZ.AUlƵ Z5F |g?ʰog[^@w1 z 8\h7Hp#l I;rzO;qOnFYaq|Dn,$Cb>~Tp\ˡ¥ȶ[e$n;Q\\orض8Pdl$5)tC{dxR&Goʦ :LlsaCQE4"ַ5'u w1C08 ?zM@%Ӯp,G#(w*bSJVgJ15.?h:L^xjEU܊:|Ђ"l} JPH# 8Pz36 + pGֻpQUm cR?z75eot .A ,2c$g=ӽsqS]BP$:j{NUQNҕ) 0X^5?kdm T)}Ǎ?>8.%# \e\sBN[4R<D`FI-Rjp4L碐>"G#a\W#n޹ҺVpFA>^N"'O;vOrqtG, ̄ V'$VapjN䉽oi%Vn:Ȅgp?Ziw'?٣XSpqPNA-TD$vjX,e\uuaȺ"j7!T scoU.T( >UؚK*C}I.Et3ƯZ=o- ^&ɽƣMͪjFha .E 9bXZÜ@Wh>^}I>9@둰FNӅ1w CŻa އxKH=[\MKs$M].^NW:,gc,ObتE՝Β4` 5,_!H<=?I5@PpFXti8R^DTccr <*t4 6I5uLA e\rn;IKq7mء慅Es֛vXl$HwB}WX{ﺀ Y1Q { ɵ5A{ G k4SYX`})4i#F{sJ@fe$2$t(`2V,~͹#cݨRyncFY憳.Ka֧6y֓<''ӵ!G rj9 wMԉvJѪﯥA%m FIl=ir<#'7365m2JY'>Ћ }h#*#Ң{dvl;gKc8Hsb[u&Hd^3^ x|`1A8.#uN Wca$8K*l bB# LPh^E ֡KGt"2<xmΠwȧp:E% -jdxc(NXՇ䰈J\0+ sҧtP 2 s~a<#f"n#;䜀JO\qHIU@$`ri\*68ZI \;.0l'*PO>\hpAޕ Ȋ@5t*0U;Lv)(9x[Aș}=k7XC5W+;DTݏa'Zt6 ,2TOjzh..m<b[5{mneHAV|Q~TN}L @a ņICUmf7B0z *x[B$2v^RP=,-fۼ?J.DU[9"B12~b/%Y@Rz~5F`Jp$󊙭ثymU7;¸Vͭ 8,·iXv@rZ$o9E5a}2ui&+iI8 R`>$j'UWttfhUcC* `'5 չ'hm"H~j#g] H"Xw;7/8gK`pݡ zWJNĹq;$Xrƨ3ֳs2ۂ+K up2pXқQT;oۗ:]J܎u9mbL] h#R.٢bvp;Úzfrά0ry*;F/<cr3o+D"nc ?Q&][6ӏJꋌp+윥563 wQV\KD1^H% '.Qxkiڌet*,cG*۹ݒX6qk{F^~Av\=.oF7wǼKK-K*oߜNܚ}x;׈{Ft9GwzK=pa0d`;c,>D(>QR\4oQM-6<{S7wơi  $ASY>7>f}EEjGGd Ym ٹh4g=O95)(͐I!Աj$2l=^e/ G^*YIoIog*ܽđJccl=R VX!X[,A J;y߿+aYs>啷2q29$8N@ej20:Va2R12+o$(ʵE$q5q{\;PQ=֥bÏPzU`I9X4vF` "U4 ;b͌TqK'5,h0?<{f@÷@vTVVIxW]>ݔZ;OR9q\w3 !IϥOt@5bF`D%w`M.97-i\ijֲDXA,m`}qQ۹?3Lbuދh#Y-axϮ+s)r6&8kb"dɩw8'{o@(Iv KOPXi$!8>թto(HWı^!֚BZaXhd9kH-@xdQ;VqClRE aEAN䃜Ih*3\4x)m]$, Xc4NqT&YيsZ]5Ԓ,M HvO+h ;CH^.GWSޕNW`m ǭFE]ALiC4ycYFFeQPb~8~GKr} qpDH,XY,bOPΑMFᎵhȡQ0= 'fGaހ+'Jҫ#}Uyq0A}I-F7[ 3sUl|Ty>Vʶ94 m1$uMB\rnqE_XP0ZZņ<,A HAV,@沮5[ 0?pF ÄR1i:'(J7OTWd8G,eWAG 6aA +;233)DeLSĠIEpq;l[r';@*%1y6I*Ŵ0tɁ U+(W&咱'o' ەUp$cCs$x=a\Göl!lv?:֤]JQH4|C&+ݤl~ZI2H$n{׷AYT7Q$u^" KPGu`cY{lT{ l|ɑK大`u5fUۥu݌YH7.GcU>m*7ixު\DSM#WmT`]F{֊,i2auRyn*t1@ *[-"[TI w>XR:iI=*~dxpj]YGפ./K2 Yv}GZc>EDtY]X֓{ 맂=yֶM5%-skĮ5elO1XN)A8NQgjMbF8= 3Pܶ9DC$u5/^X9.Npg>滏 kqJꥄJA5 /E5/ڀEO4ݗ OT"odk_nef{MJѠ*$ʒ3Қl-ŷ=$?/Uu!b!AybRO֝ Ձ^ޙ澼l2Vgn />0p>'|9^2읓UQwn{&=Zt1iM.K}{ߏWլ~ZM ,*79zvخK .~ϢxwO?Ꜵ5IJ=B6=.'% o/9+=,M!N:fy"󣵚U#U5TT-||׫uM!Ѭ4\WxSk/\IBuR@QXUo,^OZyyx^:WheQ ]bYTng)>IIRf,l\Sd&x/QP1zng=D{yˠUNѮ/ kXclՍjzPՐ) {AFtGYIy_EӛmlyͳhwQrE_T|\*G+>e;cue)Uw :8'gV\5h(H]g;x-71J2U+}'q4ONqob`^qPY\䆖778JHU LXQ0_Ye20<1P\,t =FAn٢UT>Qj[^\O|Ɋ<i/@hn\MX#ouam//qOxmc[y&,9nAS_\J,i&u t!?%wP*4к/~oA)'U6J55:"s5]%DWc3|;v-?wU*W!Қ #6qo>j[).h q֩>ERKilI<֤!Tѫ+)V 'TXž53|| M;&^X&i$Tr~ b p8N_!(s֋G1VLVٚY]%cW?1>եl-m$"sḥ4Hc՚xې8٭p!I=X JW°l94,C$vޜI! Kr*8-!* _# AL,tLcgc:T:٨V\ͭ}1HpF:y`sA(IcTprTV\GZXjVV(Gw-y\nFEX㉘6r5ZTIۍ)ji2p(Q)ia#5io ɐJܸW9Aڣ$եm4h31S2FhlÞxU/GNEJ*sH̛$6ND)c 꽴+x⵬LR,r5yevʬ~T^Y+Hҙ* ;c*u܌3vԴuU-3Ϡw5Mc[vsk cۚ"| RhФc{vp<9ʪQNRvLSfuTqm66@>p!ƒ L ¹{FE<#rn5i .\][O0ѼA08ZX`OE=Kzf5j1;Ak$7s$g=k[Sm[fDy# >fA*O59׫%vڌ{;_6< ,Ԫl~sE]~D8E ! .F 98"\^ȍrDJi.2k12EyX#Mr$Xsk:ͱ ;qM{$.ZWm9&NJ;[ֺO55qן<:iG:\Yxld|Qs Dɖ`{\2~ZH@Qf^#Jl;qXs7} LzkW</@VO8Ǡk`ұvD@cq"S$1Z|qO(fve犻>#Ԯ-d;\d)jyZ{v92G5QahRKeHRiGvuDewBU;8e"CpJ=knbE2,2Q !ԡB1-lk" \L*1zպ 8@$`STnb10*) PQ[xg`pNPU9v6) ARvw51T_jep81R/NI8N\16}*^"[P"m=foa2 ` =#K&(O IӂGN)7Pdtg1_qnKl[y}pO85 :""m{6wH*M Kw"*HM۸¯vǴϋLcVdWT`3=)!2K:G8iEb4WsgrpiX[uIlx=NHɮ^c`I~5%Q 4݆- G mE*-Ae$&2×b Ao{lnREmEks*K2?ŜW[H 2q}t]Ts(dq9歫0uܪ 慣.s~vHe7 yYHSZuB$XuXZ^?6p6M))p}j}>K۵J6(koH-' |QojL#q¾q='r+.NSRVh̰xl+B %ÎUje[b1ngdUʲkM4 e d2HoOɕo?ZWY884o,nŊᔑKpQM?-?+* %$Id1QSLTH͒5r0H=ǭt4q>̰" )z54\R Wusʵ)+mFxec ʞO1$WK#?Qe/$V Zv@c j,mqix !X6F@zZjTfJA5q(^b?/]dwaU*iw^ZGidold B+dfiã:q<6Ak%ʩlWR4ЩT哦{=.-v;խ<:mag0p aDy.9J+ݒ{~ *r: Le26>=뗺.K>uzzG͵0w W?4ǵ`DsȪ-`%XKi87zڊdPbsMiw8+)&"pAXYoyzDA@Vp~[U`aBIm c#[-ӺnBu:Vu7~/o Ф0ͻsB{Iw$RY@y^|TaF{~F? * G\f^dnִ-M>&e2\"B儌rZI }[ 5Y&+"$!;9XDd3Z(+!=e[ '9G$5#bB.V]llNǂr'n;;|w9ll’N0[Zn<ҬmH 'HYn#04pWp{1-s#Eysu^wu0"Fr 9s<0ENbk=2}Þ靕㷑>1pcE !diP`U9 _ΛsT)I!;1rFAXrsV}bDAEqBhcdy'Uf$9QY- rYKr3J_GqkX ֊)yrpZف#l(]+–9Po>QGOQ7k.bx 3ܟdq=$O4QT[P(KyDawQbXbB(d4 wE[Pң㑚U=8ʼn 1T h_-csQCZI5$BȖfҊ)5m;O+z{TeR94Yڌܓ3<`Q-o%uHF٢GL0kihQEz]+{fIKHI V}ͫ+(j*G](y涠`x@/B{(]/,y ٭$آ-K~g`ڌKkc굟{ 4gf&1Evn2KX5%gN{x]@TgEgZnЬ<iIhdgЎocgWq]EMLQF}(Iۘ,<vrڿ.#~tQ]t582"$(ۜ (yx놑_6`/4QM-ERe6 9%q+T-͠@Ǧ(qM#.xv9qg* Q{ѲXٷRCzeWroڸ8&)y^X8FmV[QR]xT#Oi0E= 6B'O jđXL2:ʠc(-E49^U(걂z OY&f;F8sE6\互;2Jy4\NV+c`:J(V'RA皝(xaT|8Z(H|ydq]e׋-Xm`U1Ev+fLV厳)BaE]SZ\Xי?*j:+(ɲ
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/pic-1-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

Kurdish female fighters from the People's Protection Units (YPG), who are fighting alongside with the Democratic Forces of Syria, gather near the Syrian town of al Houl in Hasaka province, after taking control of the area, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Rodi Said

Syria’s Kurds push for an autonomous province to govern

BY Mohammed A. Salih

When in the summer of 2012, the Democratic Union Party (PYD) took over the town of Kobani and later other Kurdish-majority areas in northern Syria, few took the occurrence to be so consequential. It was in the midst of the Syrian uprising and the world’s focus was on the fight in major areas such as Aleppo, the Damascus suburbs and Idlib.

The PYD claimed it liberated those few Kurdish-dominated towns from the Syrian army while its detractors, Kurds and non-Kurds alike, accused it of having struck a deal with President Bashar Al Assad’s regime. They argued Assad handed over control of those areas to the PYD to be able to focus on the fight against opposition fighters elsewhere.

Nearly four years later, the PYD and its armed wing, the People’s Protection Units (YPG), have evolved into major actors in the Syrian civil war. The territory they now control spans most of Syria’s border with Turkey.

And to Ankara’s chagrin, the PYD and its allies have recently declared plans to establish a federal entity.

A council representing various groups in PYD-controlled areas, known as Rojava or west Kurdistan, set a six-month deadline in March for federalism plans to be finalized. If implemented, this could be an act of far-reaching consequences, and not just for the Kurds. It could also set a model that other groups in Syria might want to emulate in the future.

“The idea of establishing a federal structure in northern Syria is a very good idea,” Omar Sheikhmous, a veteran Syrian Kurdish politician told Newsweek Middle East. “The only viable future solution to maintain Syria united as a state will have to be a federal one.”

The Kurdish push for federalism in Syria was prompted by the exclusion of PYD from the Geneva peace talks in February. Neighboring Turkey and Syrian opposition groups had blocked PYD from getting a seat at the negotiations table.

Ankara sees PYD as an extension of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), a group that has been fighting the Turkish state for Kurdish rights for over three decades now. And Syrian opposition groups question PYD’s credentials when it comes to fighting Assad’s regime.

Interestingly, PYD’s federalist ambitions have even drawn the ire of Damascus.

“Establishing federal regions in the north for the Kurds or other groups is not possible. It’s not permissible geographically, especially because neither Syria nor Turkey will accept it. Syria will not approve federalism because it will be the beginning of dividing the country,” Sharif Shahada, member of the Syrian parliament tells Newsweek Middle East.

“When this war is over, there will be one accomplishment for all Syrians—whether Kurds, Arabs or Assyrian—and that’s thwarting the conspiracy to divide Syria. In Syria, there are no spoils of war for each group. There are no prizes to please individual groups,” he adds.

Meanwhile, the PYD’s forces have now—with extensive support from the U.S.-led coalition—connected two of three detached Rojava cantons: Jazira and Kobani, respectively in Hasakah and Aleppo provinces. They also aim to occupy the narrow strip of land in northern Aleppo that would join Kobani and Afrin zones together.

Ever-Changing Domestic Dynamics
Five years into the Syrian uprising and the subsequent armed conflict, the dynamics of Syria’s civil war keep shifting. Although many, like Sheikhmous, would assert that PYD has been cooperating with the government out of “pragmatic” considerations, signs of a possible change of heart on both sides are emerging. Occasional bouts of fighting have erupted between pro-regime forces and PYD’s armed branches here and there.

The most recent incident was in Qamishli, the largest Kurdish-dominated town in Syria, where PYD armed forces clashed with regime forces and loyalist militias on April 20. After three days of intense fighting and at least 24 dead on both sides, the two parties agreed to a truce.

“The recent clashes between the Kurds and the Syrian regime are showing the increasing concern in Damascus about the growing power of the YPG and the PYD in northern Syria backed up by the U.S.-led coalition against [Daesh],” said Wladimir van Wilgenburg, a field researcher for the Iraqi Institute for Strategic Studies.

When Assad pulled out his forces from the Kurdish towns in 2012, many considered the move to be an attempt to intimidate Turkey due to PYD’s perceived close ties to the PKK. But over the past few years, the PYD has established its firm grip on northern Syria and developed a ruling structure to gradually replace the Assad government.

The challenge posed by the Assad regime to the flourishing Kurdish entity in northern Syria appears to be mounting, especially after Damascus restored some key territories near the western coastal region as well as Aleppo province and Palmyra.

But Kurdish officials say they’re confident of their capabilities to fend off future attacks by regime forces or loyalist militias.

“The regime does not have the strength and power to restore their control [over Kurdish areas],” Redur Khalil, the spokesman for YPG forces told Newsweek Middle East. “So, they attempt to create problems among communities here and then use communal rifts as an opportunity to intervene and apply influence.”

Complicated Relations: Allies And Enemies
For a couple of years, after it became a dominant force, PYD was mostly shunned by international actors.
The U.S. which was initially loathe to work with the PYD and instead preferred to funnel weapons and resources to “moderate” elements of the FSA—a scheme that eventually failed—gradually opened up to working with the Kurdish group.

Washington has supplied weapons to the YPG and the new umbrella force known as the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), which comprises YPG as its primary component in addition to a number of local Arab groups. Managing this complex web of relationships with the PYD and Turkey has proved a major challenge for the U.S., which does not want to alienate either group. The U.S. needs the YPG as the most capable partner in fighting Daesh in Syria.

“Turkey and the United States are engaged in a compartmentalized relationship regarding the PYD,” said Soner Cagaptay, an expert on Turkey and Kurds at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a think tank in Washington. “And Turkey is fine with Washington working with the PYD to the east of [the] Euphrates, but not to the west of the river. The U.S. is fine with Turkey hitting the PYD from areas near the Turkish border, while the U.S. works with the PYD up front near Raqqa, inside Syria.”

In late April, Syrian rebel factions such as Jaish Al Sunna and Sultan Murad Brigades that are known to enjoy Turkey’s support, launched an attack in Ayn Daqnah and Tell Rifaat in Aleppo but were repelled by YPG forces.

PYD’s advances and its attempts to consolidate the Kurdish entity in Rojava have had the effect of prompting regional rivals Iran and Turkey to take joint stances. During a joint meeting in mid-April, the Turkish and Iranian presidents called for protecting Syria’s territorial integrity, a coded reference to what they perceive as Kurdish secessionist ambitions.

The PYD has been keen to maximize its standing and influence by developing relations with international powers.

YPG’s Khalil implicitly admits his group’s cooperation with the Russian military. He said the YPG is willing to receive support from “anybody willing to help us… within the framework of our war against terrorists,” a vague reference to extremist opposition groups in Syria.

Yet the main concern on the part of Syrian Kurds is whether the U.S. would continue to back them when and if Daesh is defeated or crippled in Syria.

“We’ve good military relations with the U.S.,” said Khalil. “But the relationship has not gone beyond the military realm and it’s not clear where it’s heading politically.”

But while the PYD doesn’t have a seat in the Geneva talks to discuss Syria’s fate, its rival the Kurdish National Council (KNC) is represented at the negotiations. But the KNC has no power on the ground inside Syria and it is not clear how its inclusion can change things for the Syrian Kurds. The KNC is allied with Iraqi Kurdistan’s dominant Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), which has tense relations with both the PYD and the PKK. As a result the KNC is excluded from the local administrations in Rojava.

In response to the PYD’s hostility toward its KNC allies, the KDP closed down Rojava’s only functioning border gate, which is vital for commerce and humanitarian aid to get into northern Syria.

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Post a comment