Expert Views: How Can the World Outpace Resistance to Eradicate Malaria by 2040?

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?5+ [!C+FS֭/A{sW9Esዷ`X?b+wL{7<CJv{lսN; |ECaOZcERJ8#GJ1rB91j"uNZC_5$#~e. %[Tn[t~FhiѺȡx:sfj5 pL Rb)E*Xwm2})eqWagzT4s#'MEzzVbQ.7Cfɕ%Dhmwk">Y`85jW:͉>'>UVDm5wtD[ĤW}j^"p>b "-*. Bs cnFI8'ι1 XKeo^$G~=#;KWD6D1t|a~}+[tSm{,KzV]6ј۶3W=~?ƅ4;omp?u",,TySBwslȊ+m  w;SD{)XrL ;g`=8\^H8r8ːvtU7N̚I*vC:rʍMv$ : G&s^UiQ=qOړ95#"zFaPH8nԖst&S]W- c/8Q: Zhe.)? gj@=qY(90']Wq~l)w55޸okO`t sY֯ GPz(+C^֙d gea^ $i-YĹFcs]m,xHM #Ar*R?8.sA5$]d*{RsٌcڕW*9#]T|͒Xb5Hr ʴ/9OһJ74o+BNr0N1D]RWZ]}a5Fv?@2о!M[>+QȄڲ'5P,c 3baǥ]C U1*5Ip4mv8Ƌ6(¬s- WӾeW@!&#ƯiV(U8$fQtu9nx\.նC=h<{]Eq QZ(m:2mCX~zQ57 J*V$gӗMeM[ *)W(u`g&tm7ga3x`0AWuipD2R$xnځHRM9B+CjwtfvC6 #&xg 7,tB2Nڎ@!sޭC_UUU1R,?.N*:9LZl(osm$CQeEvLۉZz칊vfH;O]u;)?ZwdNIK 90̿z0DvU RUV8@@1'%堊&2|GAҼZ18O$  2NĜTK48*3&[r>ShjU^j3h}.WN(bTtt{F6L琱>q]tiM j5 &V+R2![+ȩf+f~f:V#52¶ F?(c ;=WEiOp?19,FkK\˹&EtQOr=fp:DP~?ARMJ"ZMهu ^nr^%6߀?¡FJD>.x9ndϝ:RO.#fUSI3M [Gs[:y6OJ`` %@ kC3Vbv;U!p y o&ю A݀)r?u<E&ZH0Aˆlcq&˷z0BEB_IEjl?щ|T 4\)\QhR̿Ic7<`P2;Qxzh]Io΃Ò`I884 1zuvM.G@wғmw:F6ZB dzxE0մ<-',bIS'G#rVWh.-| ^=)i*kgWܿMr4H-çy>]çW)xWo>,aR>xrm"Ӗf(;8k)u]%ڳupk!ktڻɓLha\zJ<5 J?~W!0AMpseoc$]FiX{.0 =rSqwѯ.;48hxYU;L=Ez5kRЮƏר=m %fhdt*eK8[S w~σZLb3銆H5,;IWxEs5܊C"ʟ'Nƒa"TU凁k)`zP9u oѪDH;k1gu&q  U<Σw U(W#-}Et嘖&RHW\# $URgkؚnvwStnIQex?TK2vXB% FGe.Qӫ#rږoxg73YnmyuʎW+dH5$1:T4SIF?1WshP;cɗx}>;6`&OrfmXP*sV QN䎵ڽ߮Mg߼X<5gOVx9&eE#ošVGY^5+\؎"E_zUu\Hr1&2 ZCYdpc6l8PfX)V8Kris4·SnS0?AV.H^giQxyqUg .%;}yևzrut8i;v/3Q)";(f8zqNIq@T`W9YhHYq?wзӯs^,+%s.Ʊ|5vUZH,.%qO 竢9jb%=YzTGaykO E}s}XF%Qc#=r{gCs=.~)kԨZcn_?),C~i>#ZO Ӵ?f dWcm#A' Z!)6sdMuLާKki˾~rjKv80!Q&XH8 'Z{|DP>7LyRcFy\/%UA㑒} 4-bzUVD+&u XqW [ɧb[ n;y&>uS Y%mt#Xj>!u~]MiNKQ׮dtC(|Gd1Yc?(ח~GZ3BXwpk;N4"1Ĝ+V:)e.jNG,ok~O$\"p<;"=ϭ>AVix>YKwmuq8Y_Fꊣ΀lC=9^rW4P}vMCq8oϤ4MN@,`JI s/$pZ;HRbːɦ =H87:}s~!լ6{t WVe{Ka7|?\p37wGz#$cJ։795ug2mv MzW ȌH6F}=jcV30߅SuC$#k!ׯQ+DdtbZ20fL vQ<`1@Ξ/ G9%0/ ;8S,ބb1,UaĀ䄎5BH 9b1+ yW$?'WZ_+zb}o?ƻ1C;S¿&nA0a@mU?ҽMcјS嚐U9ы%2HKkO-yQ;.rFae` ۆ;W3-a5-2Z)~ e ;K ҩ\Er)VST {h3&?ʴXngo|0-1{S+Fu*9r)FN9'=FDj/ v#V@\j7ԹQ9tCk].pdrMXL R -lf7B2w:ֱ Oʖ zt@v\*f<i Thɷ*¯Z Üu(JrЉOJ8j`63LIT<ѻBtX izKD t@.8j๰WىjTjVLz(|}A#5PԙJV =F9 ұ(pf a\G0mzjozULYPG㚩J!+Z'rR2Y1=z+.?jENa?U|Mr0ӰdP?Z巑Hciް@5cOo#yNcsϷr-5_ joϕWYL)#%C8Vs9Ly?J+@Oq]7$U:/W$u$RZ["˟y\}iY=i1M 6#`چ׵z\vcUuv)1$;q۵vdN1l;khYG[m5m| >aKi>jLhn9c0k*<`۵#5l^*iWeGs.]"(cp~R^gwG!'_G |AKtLN|ZRuFjS=n$,浨;KdqO=\j>'2D@i;gQ~$Wh:%Kd̍n]*ҧyz<۝P%c(_ֻpӱ\*JB0V.&ĿT?k>.BsVVd?oR5ڙp;5ޙm>^WA{W(⼌kaWs_m3 r?Z̹Ύx;qڻX"aWLe*=NNz-O>iM'.q Om{m,;b2tVgy$i2@8dcq %iw;AW}ZCf1H޾iVRMmSB){*AtĖN}j+ulZD85drSxKXg\5r|bo<.Fh3g/618aȱuy!5 (1ڗ*+33Z 6"R$`Ҷ'@皜 RmAsmynhhd#Y*zԖppy.fA V&IyXѾRJB\IP1kћI@Fkr?aZZ9Vai#q҆WF^zG" ɭ %XWV8#Gk$V[YJW=t7=jnb?3,%UJ/]j.:nnq5ݱZzlH 5"ln>a[řhs'Ls0`n*հ-Ubk6xpIm͎J7) рn—Ac=Gw Df0w?Vs< z',˩[\ bbg;J m)|ACTW0frpp?z .!WOLc 5cwl13s.rjJgE'"p ,qU{ EZ-_Uf)q<\qIu?)W?tBi+or|CJ2'= 凌cx\vjw 6Uf~szc,D=Unv0CڌԁZ6`Jlbg!=)h6a^x Ud2'qyn-ֱ 1 8UZ/l~Հg$go^!Jw.$zקR<3ɤII%up ,q }Jk N8Tܤ?XѦ6&˓μH&Tc^ŧۋYVlCw aA9һ],ڗSH(r.@FHdW \1I@qNA+j sCpnOui#A느5$~jD_N$j2\vEh s1t۽!R0{b PHu:U!ʹӛ>xM|kL'ٍz[Jo扺j{ uCŶ!^hW9Q8?ֹ)1' Qi$ :L!,Hlx zUiL-Vy:^MgF W!(A5RtX[JGq"]ޣP&"_n[LT TDǩ>:vkԴC?^%J6̻[֫MlD@)i!5m8u+r0v2 kjd/-oUO*-W@~QvcŢ^pC4r3AL,wzU7 vV!!m3!mA͂͹i|W#qݳA5,J]mz=I6fIi +DQB {i dgCk5C /}Nqֵ<45ύAR= 횟} }ܓ\K$ yg<(ҳ$qwp}T0=8n{=Tp I{?zIk[ӤvĿ08:]HfF{q֯ @G(W[-r\$ՙTއq#3\x݁+ҋ$u81ZDnl$y"b@BdK(F ${i:@ֹj_R{E1SdWе+w/S^kQ]ƃpFpqY*@5<FE# e]CǚG= W.B'uėZιHoQ'u<1STؠ ~AlfF"p3Mx%Hw"K?8}I٬Z g梼3\OIw8¾V-uDیY1Vs!vۈ G'r-"/h(Z͵GҴ\zU6er8 N2 rwxr?»7ˑ19FK8eAWn?:}A{mZ*6tUթG@ю(=i{PƏ!|j$~JݔHע ~xb6bkCF{tU.vҮe I4bjE-,3סF/淊Q3G ;\\"ߚUZp3>vpaZ!(]"x x*ǯJq6UUKv!J+~K.`uL1| qpxRsiC^UvB!GzՀ\mY!iR@3^߱'*)"+[H,/4iΜUcңR50iouu#-|ur1>MjCOAN\M[$ѣTt?<1rv6ekU8cȭ䓄g{.UEGvaWW`TT #Y󨝞åUi;<>$QQпX}yk1uT%g-96rڏѹ.zW%BgAσpx*g:S;s|wkpT#,2YORZ<0u7^kTcJz&f$d彂f!w cl6܅?Zlc+ֻm* cX[[6V`Nxח > /޺w9jc&qMS.ј`ۈN3]ǵr&L`H& GS?/3=j2Jͬ͜r mm-4qnJ0ՔmK/:i&x! Sֱ: .{~d`I$ e'ڱ=8JNVV'+@-K&T*ꕖs<3 `~iq=+GA#ՕLm9\z]lpwƛr9rGgH}};%PG@EZ*3PM'<"!lU\$k٘l[GՁxZڒ~e+.n[Y[g#yEIE5HhM%$/?^XGwhDsKp+-N$iA=|;ܪk>U{Z 3Vdk\5HvX+QֻHe0I lmt_A9'VaI.5TsrRHf`27z|501rFC\j.BWw+kwϚ2zpTkvtV$֤" - 3[+V8ޛNJ-. 2q_|rDNGjpFI'~k]['Tv!j^b-2Qr+-n1vOC H uSK/1 M$?z3WIIc򫐪쎛ឆj>%(tF ,t+ PF1KE-͍AvJ}cz-EJy#T <ׯ؃-b9 4N+GŌYL͌ &y [Hig }sCct Z-l-!RN* r}㊹ZV07f z5j>) Zd5ijFG~=kM iv0DgVZYr^BqsI5/SDE//θ,Qz UYe[xrV#գ|͋_*iM3Qǚu6NKjح!BD7q^VQ̭.ШܓYcb9"җ|ץZ zr*v#to }j*ƭw -hHT ,+ ?ZuvDvG"?s#pTF ^o,sb+s%0$Tr qW-t?e|:.x~0n'g쭢'qbO+W}oI~F`P@`̂9'SpRc+3xk}3SKG#$hϞFbq*I$xVM f4 .'9 }i႐*yEj99D@*O哺B^wc݉V`ү$#<ה |zuS1y^+Y'bk;ɞ4+|Fi@A׵`+\~|~DťR2B Cy#\kѭZq#VR:YHKF6s'5_E<6P5fM:7L>O= AW=cdzc*$+FuPQ&=˛HjJ> iI/ì *++s!#'iGJuxrd+{joNeRZuimvd"m-qW61 i9wxpt.iSrEBçKSS^9= |gkƚa=L~xDW1^XHOlg"cF=鸴s"vE8'p95QM|{iKXjv$~`ֽPG!?O*аѯ+ IEFzU+u@>ܒ0YQ=_q,WV<,m$~K(`iO^&6Ƒ7VS௷qvⲢi#[++OC$Me({QꮡB+vIexb;nqץ2m.ݥ T7 C6|ixhʭ!$V2};|- 9P>Zn_\{kWG4V7ɑE(\AZo?P 6N@qI_Qۂ8=ztmBŤ>џ\\-b<}¥5M^QXY1G돥ejm$8/C;W{KPɏN ŢR:3zVtۛ[k *\ەO\v lض7H"eߔdp3q&о3EmqWaQB-ӥFÚx;Rk)#V=rO+mr[eĽU3]ÙԳ %H8yͼX;;¼MYe4JƲ2'ǜ\VlVMoR:UhDXmd#8#^Vف)5>i-AXѴ&](i[|W)D-f$ ks0QKV40PKH{stMlօ2Zd QIUKMs)i-UVLt-K e9*!Zt&$I)J;u'OcMMul~Gt\OzXvr6<+^Ot{WEpʹ[Sp" 9^ Zg\ ь |ZXU@;qһ[ttV` Ju1*WR|S.WiQb⳿F?ROaT$DN3D y*ٺ4)>fG''I|:^3>oe 83Gj^%88j֒;7ĒđO&_ ?iwq]}<bxiKK j3_Xo܌yHڣӮ'?Yx)p >lҨj*eı>֔D*%_SUܹ!PD'ljn'QБgެ2F82cwf:ڦCU??JKm\+cdeHǐ2k"AlOb[H ֳ4{6lTHl6D3ʹ'Lɼxn0@vK?]~>a5pq5HOjhYslVss7@uZs"E rXXuAϵ6Z\jh+ H>kGHՍrM>J~E<JH tnGj#_ iCyf< 3y=G )F_G᫖[wz3]@+ʹZ?YRz\즶>P%яWMChbEP*wgxA?2|G|+!`#jUxvUVM,g_M ,=љt3r!v8$*mÓlW"H1w܏az˼&;.>x_GI{K;q#*QMf7խMMMͅXnmK:zY }*>̟Ȋ߅40*evT''[[Ki&PvN3?؛mzԵֲQ"6(y;Ԇ N,[vvP[u0Y0&:`2q4S/rNT1n>y_u-fFپdmuQ~zZ\< Nkو%9:6* *Ah4UXJμ=9C.[_a̕]8'w|c,s˦S?| \I;{ұ'<9'#Pöf]Mu`L(6u.[Jɭds确n hZxP", Uk}IB8Q^e\[E&xR&Sga]+{iJ7-r9l`t\׆ ?W2iֲ$#z <1] - ߩQh}c6fgqN) ŭѼc e}OHOm?̞GfQ$L1ѡwO8feOU.Nm6;_x.>q $A@$^ٮ/ؿl>^_]MT|ii"sT6QG DBqn#עZ\&?ɬ_knn1 O9 ҧN3M?ZԮ^GkX <~nz 4]XyM"μN?z3j>\-9BB?,VFik֡`y45n)hMӫ[]><",E!z GU1٘>=j֗enj86x Ҩ5LTG0 Ҵn:PP,xY`" 8HuTpiځn"v=:漲;K] aҺ_5!u*ihA=p+>yƴa jtFU%Ԡ6KyR`$J֤Y $bIqn1E{Tb) b;GS\SueD\#]U>dљd'-yCeG̓ڲFm™v]#9mxU Uk(Qc7_4IlmSAہ[= gmw.`3m5&\sȦHYh֧QPU|d?4ؤ򥽷IIBwYbҹsSx-!E'ft|ZװV`IF *|:K  ܊Ϟ)49|^AwZ- 9x &l(Z HDy;*֪rGai F$p \I,F0pR Tu]VdxP8SeD]N.QHT9wVtψ|ewtڅ1Y~Z\6I'-)8V p,PG"ʛXm:ٻ Rn{rrO+R`B7s!sr0p;cSir"`1l^>cj+)ܙFv)=ӴFsBΦ<HLؚX qai3QiS8aScOTKV#87)E|r}Ѓ|?ZPMnDQGQ^#( nLU4\hFbwZ @8ǯ|VR&3eVVu"ewY|p\6#]5"Qz᝱Sń"!aMĐ*ƽ^Z5yX'o##{c\S]v2=0C[+ics¤8 AI0J徴O)Ӷ 9c=qX uY0Hh^UdO`a}#20A'} 7H$4Lz'B"ݞNzZWK[I]K,XCq}[VnN\#\,nʇ`.[;ϧjri˖Rݞ{J84uW]7nױXO+鲥b 9?ª4R=`q<ҧ[Zٛ)巴0-N_Ju=FњitU+r=K. s^8,LiCƬg~붭jzլ־|0๖6.x2:KoezDǗ0;S'Uo`[MfqFy4NJ)ownQUQQa+թ.\Wt -T~giK4LV\kkh浵u;>-vXnQ%b|\J~C\ݾk~K^ qǹa5应J Pת+o5 %T9'eB[#Et~<ҹ+? j莙a+<;g-o ꃻBw X;U}aW"P4&NGNT,1TĈOJU–eB /K$C{@e|cpd|X<W!bť3 I]5ޭM&򠺈#z񞣮s>K[GpPʿQs|eKY<Cy l28Um 5XH63t?a|DO"|)g';vGūRfX=E\ۤ,ʲVԜbVab,Ϧ>w~jFrWNduSTxRԭ&x=j9 F)9jv.XJ2<֋W欫Zpz֐1hgVZ hEUfx6OQm lr6pH:D78D51v`[bpszcGԕEq#`z6ΤHmDF%qH7c$c?)ivtS8Q(c.7Ƭe4Zgj-Z5[wPB.*3!\.b{B m_j?\׎=?Eɻ;׎t~hwR\pxNpGT akrX |χv5qB5~^OlӖ|&,k)=8q:97 뙏Da+r7O:vҸ Ŀ>L9Z+IV،j*U5&8sS'x?l9g]HE/CH'ne}ߥ\Lk4OrPi>`1Ƿri%@{qz֥KW!czxzKg#Mb hTɱ%m*3qJbhOOSV/ iPX# #7_I}גIP v1zu!-zS0^|s ? Oh ۋJ8vJ06zq4\rZ($Fe}o-vJ4ěT8+0נܤO?C]ΕG9c"qsd$7 `b6(b޻stnJ8AwK= cXI, t6#Mi{bm #b.s"!y یu"*ϭK)nr_>Sez)4|"u CFOE_+|C6w^=1O*MMaw#c"ĚJ@BhČݐ.?#^W/o$wgj< }>y8\]l;ܚA=%,dmJF=k 'JrzfǛac`LtnҪ6a0D`djUvgM  YT=2 ߴ𙂐*HS3[IPAmH zE|lz[ +%q脁5^}jx)lII"rc)sz=m4l A^c稯Usǵr_<: '&=mb`Tw, 'i!Ag8in5-0,KO'5_L'!yJK0 {Lfc麲VS>JM쵷{"-[JX4Jl x5܋ѱ8 ~(YhыvWj705bXu 6oI;7# i`E;dM5iB3CPH!5^M-N3v̊{UycOJasx'1#?t< DOkVQXށR:(-̕3A'mnUNۀ?:~%K:-;W]_Mwcmk*.zT$5爥84vבx)&(c(Iᚩm&#*l\(8$6A-bU.Gw[3$_bW F#(98:T)ƻA8ʔ(8R{5gLϒrviR;LJI9f/,jʧb`#'5%F~|ѯYQZdZH^v9SV>zR ta\9zsޡzV"\h@;wR⛴c!j>/np o'^\ߏt|/{gUTyi|n ks@JԠXXH+gPEU4ۇ ErҴ!$U7' %Bl\vWgD#}CwVeo5_xmme7)uiYjʬN׽itr+W^ӡaq[>̘'>+m\H8?pv#qxT{}+OxigC]_=}Υ)>X,[8=Oq6*PKvmS*:5^5}dմG.\8tJ5+EOJ0DZ+{x'/cH[U;pNMVǽ}m9)J./8I[ln B9f$H^8''md!A<c43tԵgjIoo$Q򓍸J2<Ӡj v8iĶ*ѷwąsaRv;<ѓ!Xܡnd};o ~"[eHe@9#~nZ̻-q*ƗQV5 m^[k3BH!O68 <ήFw?\  5'QXQ`+YNHe6槵jm5fP>_5^n4U3]\\s}K7cH_1§2NiB?3Y J BQ~Z!x]3,3#_я)|H[LVKU$n猟NjJO[q5%"$Sko:1n O j ѥ_4j*Q~,?®6Npc*:2m =BaPFqU1j^֥g=+DbZLHu<(AZdf<}MrL|F9 cqڣ˭(YFSml<J.44=F I/PđnU7 kV C[qדnPVmzKz.4.wG"kj~*!5 8{ 7DK(]6u/rq^yLgfteѶ 6} {{DQ6CnGA D_9S#Q !Eֹ $ ,j;I\vɟKY7"³!wIޢ E {*7ndz$g4t-I;xQnemo:ג+saKf U8@5'@qaMHSqV B"`fcSQ%ې~xY3]gMW2 躍ޭ Y]G3sCZOĖbuuK8285z~qq\ a׀ ~u?Z=byX$ yg xQ$f^:⦌ݒET:|#Ldw~=v k~;أ!s֝c]<M<5ib3 N@\m;䌃] R1pG?EDxȎ`C/cߧ8=kK%~oYZ-#ǹ~ҤmeQ89SI3Olc`Wk\iNJOE-:rs_%ʹ0]Gur%Y*3O= ĶM6C*a1g?Y{v>ڰ;(_#]g椶 :^}6)9EEAO OZ/{W'."0[jHO`H)'S[V,*I7&YH{g#ja-wR>ՙTRFUՊ-OOyEX#^Rz-N*Q,YВ%푏\v_Rv*̞W9XϞFSw&KU{O.IdVq;a*5UvΛQþIFǙ [khɣ67RȤh2 X0i 5!yw"^~*,xS N")Mh[h @câXAuIH`0Fz?ɦk̎ o" 6A܌= לxU5ȹc$RH1V_?8³QQvڬs2m ,xڧ8s^E<&2:4KK-tGHč C`B2988!]p:4d uzW:qg.)s!umh38㏩ ƽ؈C^;Òbƺ2m LҾ[5p >}O0Ώ;ZiN2I$ ӲlZ$Ukgw'@؅ YzȊ%R!Qd^M}惡>x %^te#7WH!97N}(5b 7 1C[iv˰Tڋ^Ծg5CP&'ROYܻlcb5YD#sֵ.HŽwJ{Ȋ1#r=Gg{$oArRFXjXZ9O ayzguk#-(;N9B~'pgr9n9'5tʱ$`*m0=3RrQiEh{. a )E9 tȥ5u+bљHRT۷<n [ITdɜT]ZVt?\γ4u`Me_*}zKf!JOPN1\Ί6x㢺OJK$wOtU+{SԧоRUԢ⌻tt/r5ڹ??l-;Gִ>4eU|$*Ơ+=w;k$r ޲Zyg+G]g0|Fg'KEu!~Sa}708QD\H uőSϺP@=1t_|/4|ȜdJ|_c^,3kx@_+c5gZ"M/J"NC֣FV6[X(y)2:[{"0 bHҴ2ZxqD}ktȇ^i;&o ;qڽ+J̪9F{VBy! :p6gA6lV@G#։H|Dd޷3!yBqCMiKߦ={[eAZ6],~3Xl1E['T'WC’LD0%қ;(f lw\Lc OI ֟.=d5 b x1*޲_A;g20Hp㝩{W;pix锐`Y3oe#%H?|aL26ե|i!i:8 fWEt#'ZA èK70Kw41ZTp92xD"'`3Gő~,'U$$=P3`i45AmKF3Îw5K_W\SpEPMPN:WK-ZqrK&s6?w5=n}leP kRi^VWF\Z] >uy)݇^֤cݝ)_ֱZ %0kјIUO=`C(Z/_Oӯ>8x]3&1u|a=9?ҹ KTpOb:ޮfӔOk1H~EޒlGKi"[$b`Q Wo# NMd^";P7 #7O?} z"m[ImWge?SZݷ]Ax-Ҹ_[m=WJXA 9Ϸ$WY%N p?sRzI5ӚqNunSגVH_aޥh)Xw( |٩#CV|zT0\-.*ǗHb9\q_CT&~'/]Ӯ* 3i 5$xp,ztsLE\~[WiAnMrAW6ǖN\v^{m7M'3p՞*}f:"HzIiCbtءgGcV<\emhF8ÚȞs K<j U-u>X%iR퉽[;niA:ԧIb^g7yڌh: f?CkJ"S5\{?϶kz6eܡ'zW ../ xyS-;iEBq峌I4;gVI_ng̣(Jss`&Sw$cfh Ӷ¨ ţX9-iL ev\V|M{j"nz&Y&?(ڹ<*QzhU_KX u1ͅ` g%k6|OmU{ci0xeV}}+)SZ>h$VAӭzU$םi6(I*OG=,#9Ȧ\Qy+BЌagEyC3Ӄ̪FVz!  uÍaqhjM%b8\q\"W1Gp2杏}#t+v nS_Nxr?+EA1^v={͚Җt>;M)2HW|oj5 #=k~@mn w???z9;V[a>rIihIe%^ݿY `,U(s,=__*ܹ{A#чz.?֗uƱ eRw0QN/Q2¨xғa3 }:\I߱em.ic^sC!u}VԞ{3g5/s"IY3|0ևZ5HC6Kkƿy!IsLͨn5} F]E?˵OC'?:i3 *H҂=)F֕+yu\-a!lMw~Α4in (?+495̶9 iEy'm}| T =96 3#J1 F:ֵ=Zr|puՖgk'h0z\\_"Mmc0h]Z)!@Q^AumsŮ+/\w_ki<\S^X' Wtr|ٮzJsn %XOe&v}x 1+gWX`g–>;L@J }+ѠMˑ޲SW9*v}sUZu%K}>b7 Iҽ+#+2%ԝ%\۵ۅݣLc4Evw))3 F&үWP9] W]h㴷2ȻT88 RSw 䩌a.jv1ԃIڢN(Rhs^($2,+*':c'|W{mqCLdn9YWB'u 6z^Gx}:d[UzWv?4qb[lrrS?Y-#eqĊ=~3DL@oע<^ p:ڀgP k m]9n֍7 4MnO:dd۹]84Y`^\JЂH,(S%gKOB+"`gǧҬkpȓ.`i6Rqy%Gl*SqW32heZe/nu}C&(v@?Ju$s( Gyx=lܜQZC׊NM-t>RIW#Ե%h9d?.L*z't[Ʈ;O,?} Kn|ݭc|ף:o3%%z NwV98 GEnu;F;þ;}}=%6Fa>ߐ4*W.SSȥYrk HT@9VkR_v9 X.Vr#f-fpq֤^rhU ,8e#8wkh6\ {_h\2qV4l=ZPH| ^6a%c`N잜VS7re(2~a`czbݯl I@ py#^9 }͍fٷ9'˜MUD]ӱe:Әz*2~Eo\ #]Xo1SF3T=)L `h 83橙xGZ/PHFBi) N}+~$\z'8km:ye?^)5X%#䵊&ߏƳMH3w~6k-[bs1WUUwqR\:23J֦h=+Ml_l |gw6>KGxA1ީ8`zspU!kJgK3.`ܲ^2s̩*yE AnM*K881Za'M "Q!Kq!(F?Zk}81wa;Xؑ:'aA~ W9oXx7wR?fv)3j[E2qG>խ\ع {fGC]Z;miS=PIcl))k)&"c5ٳd=sW[da /Y n-Hic1tO^c#D;8SEB"Z̿jhs̥Bךhvx^NAeDO'zeg-K,N>k]fbLQJ2I##$~u= 'jOb߁5+Fy4{ԸUV}k*{cI>^b9 kZZ8M<`c1WɎÊÂsqZ?JxOL$Q>)/H?+FvdWxe)xYM/B#'1(b+翆6?m@ٖ5$]?}#ɩNv#]3Ka1\rEi&]fg/,XORzs]͞+"%q5iIx&kuא}7*Z|wKElWry8pڍ凌>ȮÄqF=FrTorrNynG+b?}O㚖KeCjWϲ_ Ƒ$Ia{F~t|ݛos~,{YpT*P1<]s!t~i@pq'ҕyKab/E^29Zk1\C 2= ?Z\ɣY\޲m>y\9R#!R0}iKGOGhQl\סݪ'GCڼ7jڑd$^RZCMA6:[k‘jK2;\r_kFcMk= `Ky=ޮ]16 p=+7j;Eurs,{ INDp_6d,ՔfK&rq&d-Ŭcܺ0mo*{{֊~pr }΂H':x,?P4ʸ'JXn I\)Ye Q:2xbH7*szhj 1$(N R͢)KVIs(e%C8xǠؾr0t=^d{-c~!eRJp~a^IrU9&~a%F^NIw#-O.N;gR#,2j9c#վ 3ܤ i9䚋i ҂MبRBW4ewLcYvیLÙCKH@KKqW/X[C%,hG*?OiqosWFH;XuS.$1or+|FISXz8g41pusՋR]͵ G,~ȷ\_.s\%U:2oBdqNk&99 nD`8[h-]chal0$)?}]7hwQM^O1Ozo[,,RqmRKxf8HRK߀yO%f:rH1 cQI<Ġ 9tgvO>'{!<4@H ȇgs۟zƳcgT0<*W#NFr9oM>rkҥ/W֧}&5ӭzdW^=}kÙ$.uAw%L`(r=P1ۭľ^@#vc]7_ vD?u<=TcL^RчoN?*v6Y 5>8rK42֡W#5^0Hv3^jn.쩊ƿZ)ÑM=k8mA*FE`[I&b$▆'>0Tۆ޹W!:2&İ#1+(x<^D+(xSsoLWk^isIrS&i2rp;sLLB)*ø85iWz;p?wz'maxǬ&" m!j2wm5%ّN}EHc-#{ۡZP^iVI+XH pXkSP{"_qq#qQӳ86A3 ?*kK5XI2 X|גh$ :͹ 1i4Hu❮_3CFD?Vm0Ƽ$%Erze7ۙS$^#PszʾYVdQ%ؽދ-:يM Iu,xXh'AT&X%Ѯ0ed)K Tqɺ0;1WՎZ+!Ær?i $lrݾcR}-j-ǭW2@=*ĊvNhQ.ME#mq7G7CNTj;U)#1$N1tD1ҕYQ49 Ҹ#9Tw$zoxi' sBֵ9f$YB20q:洛ޠ`$}+cNUtUd JW9Z.o]6ַ^ı$FG=+ԼwWM*%g@1W FUCW#P;K#- G2 p*M}#=\=P^EAՈ.R$;W^ Fc,u٥ܶy[9Efu5gyR<<i+ut?G\ֶ; `@;z{`V,jK$ޒ9m:+aO?a=F[>2نs׵E]9W+Fb5tbO᪐̾\r)f(pJ[Mբ*i#:qNUG3_[{׏<<>[hK~[W+cOOjEO>εVrz42c>pWv:i+s+o3S֕ V7 ^Xj$?ڡi^uQ+~LKi:=#g@QN3]4qÓ_jm=w%L{RI="jN![4 Ez~ t_,|W^[LÕw+9  fҮ):~Epz BZI{xl> pŪCϵfd@;kFo3p KJNb3ëSDr)3JJ6<2bmvYb+rp[JP]?M, |TE(UR/{~'۳r2|`i4)a:1c?^#yFRckrA;û.a YI<c*卑ı\4M c?? ݱ7QF%saQVZTApO+A cW+բ;[|?fۋVиynyC}F Ƅjb|!hv# rIZ{'\0(vTc ]-/U4&MrXs2r@S5?1V)ƚbBA,Tmmu'<qYŪ+9)U51vg=*yV,"k<2쬼@eԙ9W*-7~ b8T!e8oM@<:IUG5 +6Oҳl"٘6pjJGZ\r)\v.;皉sUSޣD6L6qN=ho@KSoz\?Y?Vu(ll[["#j|1ˋ "P*2B8^{1tI\9mL/+(km `VG.Kq=38}b ?^'Ur;FZEb#9Uբ*_lx4)8fɤ!|^O3)?L^HRbƇ#/μK+Z]M;\^g1#sSBgDEg[S-W]Lxjkt:-ԎJ~u|h#LB p8?U4mJN~5ijv(Z! 2 rO+OxKIqqs./Jo >@I:Ww%Fƕz~ͦBWy 0sģvFnF+ύ5zWcG,F3 *)<' xU ![0};] zi2{P#'X𖅬۬p:»fgfYTn pA]l%gL<*|HP-bP ⳁfr[$Z(JMcΛ\'W}=;F>`YSl M=wcxcOҡ|gֶZ\lޒ(dRkQ=ʒLdq V]S>=V;XhUb_<cWRJGVUB~^mVn2`c9jV NF sZ*1Mc%rxȕepIBo{& *4սͻv~Vz֍۷Wwv-&''ǡu6_*đp$֐6md$tԉ@)ukb,6쬒;Jxw\uZr7mGڀθ?~[ƤtOM6kA)<Vڣq}MsTFl=@@O,k<=#k㱀re8$}:*m5M?K_'úlP1H7?j_ۇr{g)ѓl-t#T<i׾$ɴEp#m֍%;U*8%YȦ,odR7 im.K+)sOv.=kAg4×==*jͨQ)[9<֝c\1V\Sm*FI 9vuvTvhR'hGDNP#pV?LV}ʱ ؎ygG$]x'J6ޣJ0Kҳf9ƴV]BT=*mq= ť!muzbgtnHsړɨQHVb X`qV^ nWr x&r^õh:\wgGlU1NiqCʎENzUyNA0@p)*-ǦqL9=+KX; dGcN͹A>W)\>5=78>mjO5d1Y N{'Rᗜƃӭ 4*$c1+[Pb͊ 㫐7}r+GP|0^"k{}2v O~]7'ߠEk(r3WNN*MCPg2Kp21B؇'ƺ߇7rb{/K{?^?~<4#[F;~fEkmߓǨjdrzR.漢%鍻CqNp7̊եSsָ&w<?)Y9o~Y uo>]?OVX /[f"e uw*v`v:+s:?~D*}EZC;W3%ssjJ'E"da__Mi+}I&m-%f!u8zyo#3F*ujj:trQs֮:2Eʈ[xBQm}̽?XZlWnsUb8Zuƴ3kEN(rp k"x"U+,Dycwjsvn g}W۷6sl\ h8\KR * et$Z~~O.jO-S4F>`NMG{&Vo4 vAHvͦZeosR/:j)K`~=[vsϚNб `-r->[?pGZX0=y5BY0JwtjFYֶznώXwZvfp%`91[ɩ-XT_³he*|ngGg,W1e8en$PyE-FNʥXzYnnma<;y`r? }ԔeFɳfk^!<=ۀp{wdΩSL26bn:TQ\\J9l)*8pj=Ҟu#;"m"tɱӱO!asO"@ÊDWa8͓#')V揃(*;,0ud՘&@ 9j2zT jsPR3y-"ϐ+Zhl5 Dp863!ϭRLG ZwS栎x/5. 3n }+&%x?7u2=+n` 9mF#Ҡ|?_ypƳtإ3TSV2V4Z4t2#9s~g-3v:qĖI# 2sguO >k JÓ?:[]bmSQo&8Y @3}9?#];y F͸18OyU4ܓ] C:WO$%I^W"T]'H[3ب$$qQCa+BЏ,u>ֲf>#]}H9̌#?δ4i "Ұ>*yHhMz~tЦA1\8|LJr'?PҧJdvL54GbCY2I ]2 Kҡ0Y5""Ҝ3Ld)i5(p4341HQI@ iӎiiG^)ZnjǚI #L)i5BILf-=Xb5Ѥx|UzWWmf8ojqhMӯkʤD6^ 9 J9w}ǨsM\n9VEZDcPܚf9e1 [洳PP WCϵg]XDd UUKsR؇9KvfE`.3K.9Q[@7a .|nc_bqOzڭg]glvxkeEI !r 8ny/tWV qLZFCg s-u==S4DW@"~/S#N#WR–^3UJ>㝨$P l.9lK3m'L"fb-8 w m*ӚwH%Z~&!mA-ņ0x6q+^ג{ yc\G[ |mj2Vu`AvصG ֦8R(9U F, 1H4+Mۊ.*6MFš$'U*[@~6bBs֘D@0RO?J#ggDmqP<[Z$f,,UG e>@XԚubKG"nRVV(qڮ%#"o&53"$fP8+tE\~+j6my%1` GמG5卪(;N#^$Ʈk:&$}NYb= Ȯ<wq;UV~֭޸Xpxx sMlڱ, I5zѽԧ93v+533^rĞ"l&oj-3OcQFO@7D=* DQNM]Z rhս.o*v U*"mzfjW{Sb(cnb+e*ۻ=YRJ}32 1Lfē84[Guf2yʼH$+Qҹo}wMXܹ?Uɮ,AzHA)9# ^;;TFREf'@yLY&jP*8qPJ8D HR2@xiFiX -"Q2\LjfJSG" qUa\Yk?u?2zдu*8ϭoԉt)3@#}+`&44Y*kA ]+Lg$՜d TOj&2(!UTgO{TJaьT׊b!8 c@h*)@#ަ>“nALSYHfR#:+MMٰ?JE.*ҪtoVh[7(@7&"`FA5aV2jd(~ܿ'suLdz`kZ0({ ͷ[7Z֜yug6-9-؅sXd#Ppsޯ(#s5Kka!#Ҭ_ :Uǭgțܦt%v Pɨ<ՕJ:sL^ҲflqOAH CJCOZV4Ʀb5_Q£|VP AE6gYI`dUsYؾK@o0 ^FYN:%%AޭjCϸudu>J9QFIVfpsҳ]hm_qog;an6Spx={r m'V'I'GzUXDaHj3$QLu*9NI;$ۨNb6b;JNP(1W'ko=vHv(c+rI[_d$ᇾ+G>(Zf+%_]}U{r%cki^)tu*}=*s}+]]Ծ߭_ZM ]1Uf }^ is F=EF85qh95@4Є14=n8zfEB i[ny#w3 r95g$WVNvS#h3Mr)/ˍOΗ#: lF PHgv**uǹq3EOqѥй#/npQvh9xTs,6.2o# O} uXz.ƀnc}rkq:i?2xZQ+gj)1H1zShdҚ) c<ҏZbi$ӻ \p>) F1sue!͌qQ攚gzIM(4.ю4tP t8jEOL܏cȠI*3*Bp(S{9GaJOP*7m@hDV5$ekj ܭ̙aFUiۓHN rqUHRKҤN{S&+rsPsBwEylE<99}<ՔqaD4+S?:'<ӤҳF(J :PJtg/ғfwԡ9RyNiЙXH2E5HlAjr!v1L 0M.k"jtҥRc$ $h<ԠzVlBO)9 C}M4CIKAHi‚M#tbEFqޞƄ|:MXϼ&pHr*sn-vlg]⒮̽7D=ֱoP@OZF!  k] Y^覬s~.'{Kci}z.g F23+]5N)q==U'/\ |A{2-:!#L/+{]%+{WKN}sX71+ܣT(-I?G!H84r FzӍDzfVߵ<㴋9N_tއZSUSR䉃b552 );4OM=@iESO4C!1 6zT` W ;ic҂9+r.HH=hz/Fvjm0F$692N:ջܫRiqJSM'L) !4XMy?MqC2LR0G!㊴"'R=)!eL9^*'FEyFk'QNTgZwM]8݇>g !r =ӬL?xzPC3ZMbhd **Xtʝ2X],1t+vQZ\K(Qw-C2u_L^\ywfMY3Z̍:ڣ8pG~ٮsS;xwn 򍿗"7+v '/ْ>fTFI2 ^TGRz㩫\$sb R)LN( [ Ic!9 ֏ܞ+9P~d[Vs0d4HĻSvsD ʳe$Jm<4 <e̱_ҫOrNZ185]n``%}bg1) ǿjeI&eU\J,+)) = K(8!HY 1*h ~T4?zy!q=6@CV$ p˚C)mpIқ-DVOXt?~Uq3!TݜcMvw:_5GL&pW$D<T-40T893pH5!!f5>]gs-kO"TPWHN)x9H L"jTc*ûnPNs(l$n|p2)R},9֧XfܫsP~]lӯ|v5G_}jvt'[r\$j f_*. Y RZ7.7btF`N?_S\2I`]D37$eu^1U;g׏WePlרaI|'ޅm.8קND`IW8 1F  84Mv\vn= Jwץ$H1S8.,b4D A<}i f'd{FN)C8#J6=?:a9,?) HRv.sKs]4)'s[Q3Sl.⻀{grgg1^5) S ږ+WrP+u8~Gݓ"˶%Ó(^/ f h.|?csF|e^\.9ꮣ4~v^WlU)iz 4Zk]ˬN;R0xǮ=Mwml㓻~X2k|'(X8s%*t"ZȌyΫR{"*A֫_(NNɬ-2d?5HPjzfDA^ ?Fz҃IuȠIM gi{GaMzBj)5I5KՔիUz7tIݝR{⹿e5n+`d:[ZS'P[ϩ*Dfz+G3Hs^ao-QX0jFeFV_3" Lȶwoj׆ ⾂eh茭ܼn"6j9&G5s֬+:)W"ck\qq*tV}ߴ!-pz'fe)j8nbL"=-Jbۣ\ i%gcrkmc/4{xmz+sqƥwpIC60 ,!xx֥Wˇ:>'s<5~̃+\+?H[+`Q ;WmHiQLm!$/&;zqL[0cZ5!F{SDJ)i1SRE9VVy#" LVSRX*%6"ԭ=QQR3 Y"<<Ò=jeN:4.oRlTS2sT.ee N3eNXIs3$jH'b$b/.Ș8nnO7s{Rv3sFc͸OI-@Hd'i^nc3Ic8ڞS'5r2|7(ޫG32yps1>d?}K#R1P4Q##IwH/y09Kă, ;g?PGi##險ۼgj%E`C~ˁk.5W$~4Ycg)H5pqeI j- o+RuR|OcZ/'PԝjN<C?CZRmSWA/ؘdP <ณɑ+}+|~V1^&uU:^]M3CQAV)G{$۹@<8QL4ڲh=MBOTd٥Z#`<94rhH Ranғ

(99Wg|DrGw:gQE8>kZسm˂*viHIMjrԊ.>ӦNL`ǃZc)Y@+PJ~ϣ!hG0K捏*z'ha\ (+k7ocz~yHQE{CT88fR^S)4s(BpE uC P%0*֨^*s g]KQEtl"0#q5ϵ#2;E94$ІtUR0ORk/Q-Ɇ$:Esm*<$@]azʒm?2w5vP`J(#ʑog b".8X19vPqIW)p=z⥑>l`9=zEQ$W)%r'┇Ҋ)"]+ 1YF:T9VW68kW3%!L;}; #t$t>QNTF/b;A.CIo<Ҋ*2qh)&[xʣq (7ێPI= Ⱦj^Q^I 8nz{SE0Dj@~_Vr)ЁW8QP݆CA RVvj1آHc)h =3SAȤ&(3E
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/2016-10-03T071249Z_320229040_S1BEUEUMXLAB_RTRMADP_3_HEALTH-ZIKA-THAILAND-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

Efforts to thwart malaria are under threat as mosquitoes have become increasingly resistant to drugs and insecticides. REUTERS/Athit Perawongmetha/File Photo

By Kieran Guilbert

SEATTLE – The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, a global health and education charity set up by the Microsoft founder and his wife, has set a target of eradicating malaria by 2040.

Yet efforts to end the deadly disease are under threat as mosquitoes become increasingly resistant to drugs and insecticides.

To outpace rising resistance, the scientific community in the Gates’ home city of Seattle is developing innovations ranging from genetic modification to single-dose drugs.

Here are the views of some of the world’s leading organizations that are working to eradicate malaria.

BRUNO MOONEN, DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE MALARIA TEAM AT THE GATES FOUNDATION

“The biggest challenges are related to growing drug and insecticide resistance, and that our current tools will struggle to end the disease in countries where transmission is so high.

Ending malaria is not just about finding the sick, it is about finding everyone who is infected, as not everybody shows symptoms. To find them, we need more sensitive diagnostic tests.

One innovation we are watching closely is the attractive toxic sugar base, which is like a sheet of A4 paper that has sugar in it to attract the mosquitoes and a toxin to kill them.

If you hang them on the outside of houses in a community, you can crash the mosquito population. It is very promising.”

MARTIN EDLUND, CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF MALARIA NO MORE

“The good news is that the product-development pipeline for malaria is strong, really the envy of the global health world.

But we need to keep investing. The first innovation we need is an ultra-sensitive rapid test for malaria that is ten times as powerful as current tests. It would allow us to find low levels of the parasite in people who show no signs or symptoms.

We also need new drugs that can eliminate every last parasite in people who are treated. Current drugs are highly effective at treating the illness and saving lives, but in a small number of cases they leave parasites behind.

As we move toward elimination, we’re combining mapping with mobile data to show how people transport the malaria parasite from community to community.

This allows us to deploy our resources more efficiently, and effectively target the sources of parasite transmission.”

MAURIZIO VECCHIONE, SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT AT GLOBAL GOOD AND RESEARCH

“Eradicating malaria requires a multi-disciplinary approach, innovation comes from putting disparate disciplines together – physicists working with biologists working with engineers.

But ultimately surveillance is the key.

Countries that are struggling with a variety of high burden diseases tend to look at a magic threshold of incidents as ‘we’re done’.

When they hit these levels, they stop funding efforts. That inevitably leads to a return of the disease.

Short of total eradication, countries need to keep their guard up even when they meet elimination. Even the United States keeps up surveillance.

From a science and technology standpoint, we want there to be a variety of innovative yet affordable tools to achieve this.”

LARRY SLUTSKER, MALARIA PROGRAM LEADER AT PATH

“We have made incredible progress over last decade, thanks to tools like insecticide treated bednets, indoor residual spraying, and artemisinin combination treatment (ACT) drugs.

We can go very far with these tools, and achieve elimination, but to talk about eradication – ridding the whole world of malaria for good – we need new approaches.

Malaria surveillance has been terrible until recent years. But the idea that every malaria case ought to be diagnosed before it is treated has led to improved surveillance.

There are lots of innovations – like sugar traps – to be excited about in the long term, but in the here and now, better diagnosis and surveillance are key in the push for eradication.”

KAYLA ALBRECHT, OF THE INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH METRICS AND EVALUATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

“Accurate disease measurement is a crucial first step in igniting positive change.

We have created the world’s most detailed map of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, measuring mortality, treatment and prevention coverage on a 5X5 kilometer grid of the continent.

The use of mapping by age to inform malaria control and treatment strategies will become increasingly important as the burden of the disease shifts from children to adults.

Hundreds of thousands of lives could be saved by scaling-up programs and customizing strategies to address the needs of specific communities.”

Malaria No More and the Washington Global Health Alliance provided a travel grant for this story.

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Post a comment