From Reassurance to Shared Interests: Bridging the Gulf at the Riyadh Summit

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?K_&)x( ٯ Ib!N2 ,pxm?Ν bqִKxmޜQ(f#||Zn0aVjObjQH (Ҭj}_oq˗n;uv.<в'E ^E J%OSRT&=F *?4h`cOY RzڥCh, ;O!@_zpCSt49d¤YŪ[Tj̦&ξ4ѯWQ_θo W\ojk_*Lu,/J1:/jy#y&y\Q,LOd5 N.#x뚁bCZE7ٓ{cO?~u+j"@c׺G\}f=dt*|~ukau?0}b=ait*veZKc#PϚMuO6t=W_kweIk;ve4ͭ"]vAՇP4ٗ':9z܉*'Փ=I_ S~uV˚[O R˥>Ǥ˜̽W RriW TwDZ΢.gV7NzU]= @~,?ѹ4\O2/DZ;¢2!0"MBE4^`_X]Ǎ[:yc\C_\W7k\.t]¸%ҥ֓9w"NUdd ~cR8y$ex]= Ei/أdP - }i N'<VHr87<ӁdрFZsDLR6Ғj"bpj0cldZ{HԖ*5dvYM3('9Yv[Fh#vV Q4§LN[JcZ]®^xϒ[ӵT[j{a%TQ(GrME1])yR2iB\fgJN%[DAi%:5ϡyV Skr;k8cnjX>( Dkʖb<%跡.|$I~ ym:(R#Mޯ1%?¸;G\f?2#uifއ8mypjVn; Բ.ȢmJN2ثPj[1;t->M S<w4$ӱXbW B ^h\,lZ.eR*ìgMd]_m%.Aɬ v>q(~dףDŽJx)H'bkP/·m ‡hq򊥹ZHVoq|]7UU)9.a\f]]ʷ_5GX1 }\}J/f?']M[WZxz !{8?֏?x=+qkFqR B}E&NCFq5;Χ=UgO=(Ӹ˪]:].Ǭ ,UŪ6g5t~"sOsNiҰ4ω{ל@(<[Qb>3n^оPrj c:.ܐ\kvrV$aTT #hGnTY%|kR4|šaArYdKv,!HUm% ޛ;:WOPI8;njn:>Nzrӳɦ-)1ҕe b<`];ST6)7QFVszp9l+ b7RE=)Ҙ4׌7ZdE*ZF}(WsJvç4PdjWr* G1* rI`Ԥ7JKaD$իՍdv !ʘ]fݭqz'ˊ$RTv'l3֕&QVG1x3OwsY4s@s3V[h@0{гoKJ)s3ҥQE~0TkĖợ׊jRI}>Iyuxg׳_V~4<:u$kԬ%QאXF0ktD0x1 jf:;k0Lg5-ws\82)=_S^EwӚqH7=:ZϚ͎vFUO{&FhDdF[cP"ip3t_ µmg^eM(mo{e'?δ"M&)Jx83:5Jxɔx|oΗ|_P=562ԫZI\~4^?Rч=^@zJ/b?:!ݯIf5//}ڝ7Ă%eA\m]鮏*+^*j J嵙"oK8*ɤÑZO+$zɊ䊥<ڙ62kS+3y&M&|ߘQkտFyv4*U>?f}맖'ٮTYwp"R"k,J $ h詐ju.3]-*AmsI^Ҙן V +|֍tKUcԇM95V~$f,T7> 9a\O$ FE,3[xSK/$Z|5n@dD:=;]S`&+n"vK*2T>ָu49%-#u?VV 戥ʄԙzQ' *FтpI/ ARZdr06QǽW'Q /ٌ@I^ Y`y?Hɏ| =_(/|3N_/OPz?+Q1M+b{sA4)4P) (E/jLQ4Si٦4~tB=G@\U ޤgIN tOxs_ ; Mxb?{gF|'vGMpZgOF$kuͭ}+}םlEq)? ]!8 J9aS,P5*)v>AUM{56ك[bɼ3j;XfǙdT>s@JҖ$E@(WݰUnOS#Phn?ƯM,\Z0h֡ (8Is㌤Gof^6ǭo,#VdseHnMG"9)6aNû-V?{Z5W!MjԿ|G-\vfᏆz>2<5y?/u_/jokr2#Fj9oJfI'ȠT@Ƌ(9')X.>2qIX9A5&&`&=i.9y8O/Mbk[ç皙|,=IS棐~_YvּIZ=EQxBxjX2j {Gv?Su8Dp =;gں!"<)>kr|+Fo.9\b-=Y"$&R0 MƱXi'ozLqtCě! :-p9*89fs˱V$Z2nGNzM}jާ,onIy4cV-o}kP<֐^1VҪ5i+iE=X|Sշ?)EL *Jֵ-aqRzf C2OZQ:փ}Bj6$ 59<'/=yDt&:=M?sGLv4r=uj$2b=!gt?*?GC~Z莀>bˣAc?Kr:\L?fBIqo*:4GP]xOEWCGv9tCpyr?^DK|LZiwo xWbG+Էqq<sbk?*0ʋ(yr[.3[uK@cҟ2?XLd0Q~+*d>N+zyYe@9&>PPsNsh[p[I("VKjEfɬyrdWBNc{TDdC'=*'c֡ӭkN9%/M YŃVSkюxmmԨPMVslsީLOM±olz/ұ/SwТGV㪿VPZbiHv/jʪ{3ѓ6ևjKWsҸ&3%l@cCcpCM#jSc+7*)U"}C%g:MIՠQ8r5>'uxO-H{Q'Jl|3xO|Dμ7ι bZdtS$z׊iOZ qh%"P);RZ E!JC@ցQ(.~X ֺ/S??>v7zOBۙ=)F+KG*٘4pNkLS*P̯OZSGj\9)FVifOjtR4VKڗ*31F3E*iRj\̧N՗0cș;i]Ea ]yR,&kR FM^+x* vt>"[=*z>aQ\ִi>i94Ѯ ;,`Q?5 8㑼2rYJ[ *G68aVQe:m•ֺˑg_̛CU@F 5Ȼ)>姼MkX:cizj sAᦺ#f-VH`V2FGrz6uߘ9`!NuFzSU7AL1UGb|3ּ~[DXdG:xq)fAkT\QL𞩪UGqPxXѳqҡ{XMG/>+KY%> #=Zeuty-q >}ymZ*Vn锥k]ݷKko@X6<XWZd.W_F*+n;r3MgʁPERB{R•'qL ^d λ]`|)|n5?W_C-r}ڑ$魎6U#8G=f]ްv[]X@NMts9C*+z*>RAVVĿJ8B-"){☇:^\3ڔqHzҁHc#ފ>v)sI MKSs#tƺҰ5JkAr[v+[ЌYFJc\CJsL>)6_"=2 |/?@3\]<$.w7g=jokZ1ngʹ6dw7tBVmNoff%#*.=kҖCTeS\NsIL+u5NVgA蠡ky60\ƥe,')<[M'>bxSܹF[v{myDkx2G3csD#8pvx@M:ٹ>Fs֥VqMoƦ?rߍ(#,ךMciWR5x_۟_θ'&ۜYҡQy#v4,GG;F=82)8aM 2`[fka/ASe46^t7> ?Jg+&f7=+pՂZrg=tzqWBAsZvZkͯIhwҨY([S&ZCZ]ǃ6qM4 )IdEbnڶTzka_kŭqȨޤ2Un""sց'5[Rs71ӄ$-w5fOHV\aj ۚ?n@Ϙբ<=y;WoJ¦*i'{ I7 &܌V_/&mi~Ԭ"{T)ҥ:CW*}swNj?{֦pNp*[KfҺX!q$awS9{']Wuzןض$lqO!4{F +Jt t.y$5NktvƜx}>z85f"]}k:MI7"s5L) Pjۭ7iM ›߃/dY5|~O\\vv}ecş9#NmB.?tV8i4V}nGcͭ64;Q^jr?SʽgyYohԵ y*)1ƖWfZ,}\ +é Њ>j,M_ XǸ@APC:>QؐaFBQ{bn5zs]F#cb=rQ Vt!N)>UW$3QTJPl[zR>.Qf"})?"t_ ? t~+*fgSSz6)ߊu8QJ=M 4dS*A@})=i{ЀAMN'zlf@!<{SAҨG8SXWMnKȬKN{XV#a[R'kl$g#~?]T.-;.>9%$kƚ\$C ϥG*8[6?)Vcj8 ñG[WQ툁+_5Oz=K$eԫ.3+-^Qc.3(Hy e%:I~e=;/ᷞiyJ/$9N%I䷅dAzArX\ֻVW9{*ۏkHSİ=8)bzMrW*Bx0r1b])ZlHݘGұZ~cҲ/~ss~q?-Vzvb VRA∕!)s7Q"I?ڔMp?ޔo="W }KۡfRNȻh4ڗ^'ړ#ҋ.5.*AߓZxSOlfO@=^KIIɂ|P~KM՞H+}/{MړPqq)Ӡ/3gCٲT|Of uQf?LKf >lGw_~o ͧkv(VMc:2nUMY\Ȏ@| G[#K5%7VE߭c+Y7V_SP7 <ւC!pja TĹH.ph:uj9ػCS M6CM;!FJ\qҍ6#M! ,Ex0_޶\dֲk 2ITcb>yVVToc~|)kK˩T5,eoltQ\yvnmNA iCC ݹaitE"䊆{xҢ(Y>_'pΤGۋG'AsU~fiY[7|Ċ7uzfIp\dfu{(K Ifsp? + 1`յ|Nz/>\hzۓ "8/pGkǘ0{W5dgczw&|w4dD>j(7ͅ%u,ZC-ăn~# rjޗbV0O'Vӂ:`W[ӴNXuk=JܲTؚ7T{8gI! v0U2yM-1#ڽS2T+4-qJc\Wz9^G7jcAՠ]:FkʎkR fPr=j$Lb^H|G'$C[]Fk Ռs~;~FGJno' z6Evեav85Wb{PWh4J t7//Creⲉ=uu_5'9PQ%|F41abzбWxr{⹋{Ɍw Y^&ei9u#kEKȉVqWfvz$ ;Tzcު29T>⻣]ݗMs}}9)1x.܏zaqyojxH.ޤk]hpqОs@@csӚE'%N* aP2)2]Oq 5G? xA[#_gjKow- m)A洭~x\XP ƸW)G<6Wb9>+TGַ!E*~<ˆV; d dTGpa=9gSoh_ak7u,r Ě,ln ]3R|_^I?QCC,;`Tg//Wp{e5aIuC,1uqY΢RI\UEclڃaoJǷ5CR&/kK R[LElvzkڵkܞOxDZBFcHu*а82/fFss]|_y :PwzU\㟇ZNmPɸNUO^x+B]^9dԫ "r|35Œ33z5k̍Ugљ9O\76D(G@G95-}~̛NUƞpNv>I鎕(5=MJ c9jއQ^{p2 t:1NG,$ME!#a&Q9\Rv5dWgm*|q\|r@J#nڝ^Oj&P Ǐ2FxڻqÑ-ouKQr'%md)%5>k Edc#x5+Iɪ]@)<׿^޽ U4Fp{3,A9+TZ㯾 IH::5|(\継I{1={IM1$dW *ٞ$ [OvOwWY*p;|*a\U8]LJބj+[5Eϓ'!ԒJ΀ҢiC @ڕ~~g mS|q e~ ?W0zsѫ!nHz+ԉ-M#vSiutcE3\Jǯ",e?*Τ.Umso(wG+GbY$.->@vA*RkĊirg:So[ř:l1O(`AhQI=i&8]tZέNXܺP畎Ch0oJ]7p>rm}Zi3$ r&חWK[Vfgq'p甓= qV6|۝[-^FVw4 kۖ'[6x<硭tJ6[{^Ez`w~! q$6yGݮ(IڛW"Dc#RT3H,:{ (tдZe`L-{wmwf@D \he8(O1S->Ecwo;UC2lU:Hu `9\EQRK2Xs`֘s=+A-7+g 0Jǒ'pa\cufS8Jjb&!}HEc8>C^jzq^FxOQ-}2W5ikbAr{+Kĺݾfʭ,LjA=ǼY5iiꀬmqƅgauF%"e5oYͼ zʳZicq'wW%lUc_TS-jJ.IugxJ])b4BF>bOowO GVueQe/)!#`ݒMmMYX甹u+KLRcȚ1}/r} _*dgXLds#TCt`(`u@H,2T* t!l ~U>C2˜8kArJİ2#ϻtƲM\,Ϟq{,ܔO $f{zX*ňh`,nҫijC"H##W>^iW6LȒ(Q?t^'/,IWOdD?<;#jיfzy暿V*j_yr܀9D7?ggY% !טb`Ks]8Y$imttZڒ$E'ggcRD>WZz\֨ܠxxK,T$2G5`թ/10"$>LZ󟎖/nBpG\,w0OX^4ҎMVMg$kW)hَ.R\>p)V܅jg`enx6UIs54ȑ2O5VkUPGdEhnc*8j)$"81ضN`ޥ'3ké^mhbH0yvvmUz{N*I׋Ƨ:= Tp'堶#Ar}*e&1 |ֽ[~U5wzEj)Fx9kxgWEsW:lRI`2E{oTg%VA*jRGc{K]ńLX7Zf]` "[kHj̪(QUR4Tt_ r[]npzעF>AUDl*8kku^+"):ysO'Z3ܞqXA]~neo1)zX~|MLՙ P.:R}"ܱ?;pv+T^|=VJKSM_lqӭpznm M{#X>kuދB^o Ha&mA D78#Wli?ڟ`ڑ6Z5aq֙cXYhS5W,q FNNV2M˔b38ɐ*T=*qԮq*B[>ڼnC#@G|ʰMBV#8u5s6 h|5ۯh>jP՛p]J|=!\KyCV汧ψ|ĵRO]p!d5us|e`Vtzy w;NEQqEYd>Ԋ5Jh, @>aTgaz3W=]ۉqEMݨ,s&;F6exO9}xtV\TBJpU\A'gsbi. 7#EN{bjPIVRR3v?*wXF9huWZ ӤW419lfƣ oFO2Džp?Zѷ&y98ʮo$r?E13qTnevQ僔aPRpjV'esRGkq*2bkBnȹ5q |ͅ~l ֢wL"W5džl15kN:j/3\,CM;"ܑ%̉anH 2;|Ƒe,|8׷=ɜp95fIjꟛLnةRyNpy5=##ӧ֫HZ.wSs{ڲCkF88Os$Wx4 dU\=zJ줺Z5BCȮ" SWjk\^6EgT6sW('J~+mFDMh|ZI .\RNMZ)8P08h[rOd)͎@ sG%v%'dsmwOʸU!@jK1̳G E 5A_+0}5/>jV8oa8&m))FV]F0@+VrN/Vep>=+lάٯ  &lz.Սt%s$=Jmu[TXjti,RFL(R'5'ns8'f.QFB( F<2C1޲|C'ΨECJ檕0CKqi|ϲ343 :wD'Y^6\Fߓ !3itt4o>w <0QWz;j"?匀J\)hMm +T->$u֤*U\4]O5ԠI! Ϯ+о?`n]ژ[@xB[nppWWVvi[Ȓ#\$:zxY1ˊ.y'*?w^vTcڬԃuѧ?WF9Rq!5K $H&x$JԊ~E%෴˼}a6Gֲ'F5mו(?,W9(IH茛ٟ$~ ޴G/lWBwHq: ].jv.mL%mߎ)ƭN>'uளY4z&ԼQmSIud.gZw^ma@S]qotbN"QtTgZx14rSܰ:S#־N9R$ՙJJI8OxۡUֽSAi,ptڭA{>5-ō:1\޷֝CoL`{W#s] Qxfk6q~$ʰqZ2Glm^O}RztuIݬU]>0 B q,}<#w_J㭵;D,eJ9<+OPq^B JD2&N3#LrWMtEEFr'`uoxW= krzdh'717ʶjH$RrWc $&{s#Y8H6ҫ?h7YQ:8dr8뉞1ھ`ӯ59<8%I᮶BwR3cK}A%)4F$:sT1I]7^6;@"1hxKavS(@.ߍr$쁴g'^+"T݂q\ы4?PR{+yȍv?jk -n b=kTTjlh>ʱ'8<>9)QV:2L坏'w|5.pp?'PӂZ-αv8's_HhD>Сqs[Хws[+u>n."\EJr%!6ju /Fl6ɟvPOF]kn;E6:t5G$37WX~U^!#1`u/[Eo##y{g4A9#+rsI%D2|SR1D[(w Z ! Wih(;j.Y3GwdOYY\۸\ܱܿ@IF7HnbEeѧ;mDᲪHjw%О64l+6bC7U/dla^&yiN9c=4;qq(kg+6L|{++H;4O8qRө˳-/lDL{s޹;$U Svd˲T@~银hڔg/" O>k$p#FIc펯n4S><4O'NO㊘sNU߭sc^4~`?c#vޱk_@ = {m\kT|է\8ܞ688$b^)F4oOy22\S;aR^ՖyVwx֫h~m[ Yڎ&^_}i.#%ZڬҲgbNլS!`QK1F68a׊O{xvۀ{8?A(i,{'ָ LWtQ4OcTΞ8nWBq\e lTʼzڰ|e$XueR}+L^ޫ\N.5 N<0- ,!O6%Dy9@I2<2.x jk^v9żLW9)[/GG J{U#Uo^APgxN(uSxYnyЭ ӶpqW[d٫]OႼc5%oSzXI|S36x ] f:<% <2Tb}twC-e 켟rz]V'QqYwrA*ٙXr=*% mwѕn;cҼ[&H@}=PGJ$QؓIi}3l)$Н9 *ZD^rҩ+zVVX+ɬ殍S6Q{nq沝?9g{+4 ¾4z W|ׅGKcBc |ڥRQJZ6}N,ч~A/tDyKHAGm8 y_>#̄5?ݟ.!-mr3]sSљ8%ּy#$S Xa}k.dbO$M:BqPEnEoh߁Ƕk ysfE07*o<.k JY9Fq>sOuo2hL֤H?K PQmn4Τ5|Ax^\+Bs~>:G$hq92QMRJ=>F~󞦷uugq#*!UFExʲ8 '^fYSKgR"Cqwx Ug#c`PFZzqXGq֜r0Un?x84&bA!E9)>&#?k|g[z9v_sx.ogVS]XWzLtN9ޣep'梎Md5p%v5Vyp y?(HLlOaR16Ǣ:tWE;Fn }-u+Nѯ +zRj7 y <ϥLՍhxw2ƁatowtLFIxS\p\[˔jnvWO$nleĜL0歧|Z L&ʫ*2~Ok;ekrB5~MFH띫"mux+~USF~S=2XG€T=xrbW-s)hޣ%S8縻S/$ Q/~KsO%tj)4]wM?rU eOOŇ;\*BҵM c:&o1Ƶ^`&Z㥗-WWgwR?pPjXZGxXy=I|*=O-'n]356>Sz%ն_I&$x|EN1*)8Y;uj?JxD 8CuB%T;Y֮/JHh`urqs+-(p+Թ6 GHdS+<8 2os;(?@v. 1UƋqk,vjᴷ+s/ڑmfb/_g?G>/F3P7//*è5$R}E(9kg9|Gm@s@%?|0+a8"&e➘oo l>|k黨^=4 }4kȉQ@˚>.C]e*3+^|*˾hK0&&_(@-qj5'ĶrەJ%|T-IO12~rOwׂ3sֹ}uc&c`+\o5X1XJ9F<$mܮkFDf ù <0ֻ)CjsTއ 5D❧i[s#YAiW]V}Rdͤ`ŎsKNNd`5JNXUUˁLw x52$.;U[8dKSelU|f/KCֹ߉VjA†QbsٓS wΈtig Y(O+Եմ ;^ R*VR V+Yl/lT4NUE?0#j/fËq3?W,b(¨|T zb$q*tn<3*6!dǷkNJ7[vԚti\)D=TgSތ(PЅ ҘNϓ"wmȒOU&5*Lȿ)C*+aJ5iQi.jth>*ep~M['FLRK=*8)P}\[]zw `yلzg?^s (; -- C-yK[7P!b\uy LLz 6!%}Y9ؐY 1=#ï|VW^KSp&x"8 A˼Qwi89z뭴 (]݀B\5okАq+Ut渋aui8 P*dt%Q,0H0OҬU,m}8ϡ ]ꯑF+ڲmͼBfҤM6AC>RR:rZK%Hn:lebA챧^K Dx]~dئqy,6LG!`jxjAi#{Dy]Żr#'w5xz24?gwiW`SvLk 3c&#.kkFG1^Qt!Ts^SZt"mfPȴlN+~.?FF>RkI5߀^#üң+?ej"o0Q%6ؗ=\h#ԯ듁Zkq,cn+m9%Wp]7Ұi^i#BhZEME>7ARȿ:թO JҪ߻yP2g׃vGe%xʾ.MEg#y+ќl ߉,$ !W6ɘtTuثX޷mɪc|.]ќ?QR)XDUF)lh&əUtN)iUdt7B?iie/(un׺t.ewaָjΥʴy/fw4D4ݹi,On#Df&ญ`^5K*SV{9 *]1jV u\Ν ´pߥVF nRK t{GtI/t 9n\4F0qWxSĦ+eal1߄Zya Ml|U π56I r=+/w3@eJ$+Ef9+M83JH)`ČU`_LSS;K Ӈ+MjEr7D Y9z7ԲKQ-ZHrڜAVsV.櫪婙5 ?,.XR28a\7wIn6{A[q~VPt]S?~n+Sm۱9;Xm_Dη8R(#Hk'1W/ۉwq_Qy@k35fŵ{bg,l }jrqQcN O6/{;e^S!*guxm1A!q Ęis8GgjIvnwl|7uG2f$t't b֢{؋e$\䓀1/m&f<.RD#EE'޺nf^;\KIqV qw|7&[\ی񬑿:q_ Lrc4j4NzY DԤ}+;ĪR$ǹʷ5+{shr4RFqSotKZVx)/\~V;Ҭ٠~/I(G"8T  oYyvY@@JxOGo2]+G~j1zїOG->?_o[rZ"[/7y+H,F `+ojMkwuq$ۘ~eTBoJi/j[!Rӛ猚g' 6sⳖ&S9R=+T qֲ#hdE"2i;WrFй&d)ّ|Wy⛏hsI}]%h6C 䲟bk.gJ^榹n7֫ <ww`vJܑzS23ӊ|HAN znV,20 g#a{HŠ]f2.Ezg¤%kOq!wu-$@I utR77)U5'ȮΌ2ٶd9xmywos7Wuoc ˴zCe#6K-׃=++O>}Dy|pDq="uէϭ{6.}3MKrcb8fQDEaJ6O乯TqhdV-&ݠtҜ+u!ubۥ9l'ꭣeͿgV޲t x]̾wZwej|QM82KD Q[ꪬ+?u7-:oǕ$Q2H\ͤ^gYi_ȥT>$Z5;c?U'tIMGy VWg:l^nl \c-a͊_˿jӏ ^9q$ZQ* zu6'>ʧebky >[i 즳/.m.wQՆ*ևN>R8-3aNnBG+t!ֆx!ԩ"4sPj6m$a&P4ȅ 6=NG YlI]$ۿO]VOyGb;$OGǧzG}Mq ;R|_Dm/(6Jۂ:FTmlYf7W`O3#K͹3"cOqEr:VGs%% ?qɍ>fׇnpm< $bP:¿נ?x:}k ,6$2pIJb3Ң=#Fr)VD8 bA,+&qm s>qښxn)0=v_RQrH]y_9y N^,,d??0:R̲gڲz^1q_NdXVg?矴GO1ԏy(S._oƿeA(e38 >|.N;!k ^$uq|2VĒd̄!Ǹ¾$-?jgt]"6yDz sWy|YScޘ3qjwbo"М?#F\dN~qcox[&?*oQ@?Y8ֳ@ecMXwrJri9S͘ q+G29kCʊ&SҙN}hX >CFqPԑFӊ[+7_a.5If}jv}+E;E*| /jE`]R -@I4b{g# :='8,BTFH(@h.FX r*+{3M̉&je"^&U 궶Zc )i e{Y7G.ٔcZq+my0kFHۆ$ׯA\I*#ס#'խ>Lo6Љ%s,SOvwtv?W,q+Z^1u4:n%`[{t6 BUKH?wZ񖩭F^VlNGg`%TY%)B2yn.'%-,1B{JUi r$t}k.( @ f"ǘ#<.+n ņdr\M.8x8>e=~-HgE̔~ߔv5vڲ =oݫKOɊgoNEpm-))i-Dǧ_ʹ1sllɳ%tѾcSe%xITPK@6:$İ\ֽ_8J۲WO'9~_&-k<[R452]7־mOXrLz] Ŭc˚mQݩQ ÑMd89EKGޠDp)1R&!4^)O @֤m0HԬ8W<\}/M6/>Y1k3#Ѡp^3ˬ9\"9MjS3qV=FF+L>/bƔT Z-+sͰ}r&x<#S^Iiؐj#5c;ѽtJɞ+R34[/6ڍ!a{ Mu5ڳHCtF=~ux'U{IӮ ~\aQ529 oN.Z? sܝ~?,[Aru>[Iu)=kS)HsǔoFm7a\g @TEzuh0 g+ܢpMuNo3ೠg1sTIssߴNc45=B Vx$ {*4G)dzSq! 5nh⌫®sM 4WTze{45(wLL+ɥebJ'=)>89vwI.%g,ע*/ ^O7{xSctqOooҹ4oja8\q"Iq`+/5񇁠2xE^EW*%l^NzS1㊐jF0*&jV*X˔IHU0E-3[D01ՑP: {RN՛Yybb4\ [;a"+Y{lV-d]TQXG$ßw;U&P{ԙ3O}DH9𦿭,4Zوzj!OT@ٖ`p?^,Gz\?#\{xܜ maG5;%瑿65o篲I9}kY _g*rTq[ bӵsp`YBbUK<#]į+}2>fǘ¼=j}fMOUgI?Ϊ𣩯;G/$)[ JQ1LalW@F \1Nc=q]ڡV'oz k` ηtX2 t ǹGr7'5nj1`UmpN)0,{SniOR;sHbGJZB 'E򪱹FXri#\3@"aCǎ {& sVFg<2XQ<|NN)\4#H:sjͭųAǥY x{ߚ~Zk-Ur ַLsǖT2H@&T(ߨ~Y!ϖ no[3aPׇsEy`9sU>WntO)iR6zJ[*zCҾpqlxF~ƾ%lf#OXqbv4y3]R *+q]DO؎V2&J@ETm{jC)NJLE|O`TvU ,9R8fs@ Q$SwCGD?&ָU% <|f]JD olp+)+~GA5gT t $<5ͩ8icPgʑxD5 ;jֶؘx_eŸ^+z&h ކ,rZƢ- CZgáA;D%#á@̻t=j/vK-n>I=f enhGtuRfWyדAW9cq_yE{q3ֵL+j51s5EVTRN}B5+^%x.~g# +~,o x pOrkѾ̖67[7 ׈j]M畤>Ĝm?n3j~qZRjRҞ+oJޣ} b,@$8 |>lQ.ȜP޵{lt0 ie*VGA\L?Z-,O@9*[RP՛^%poʺ4\S+;\jVWo1╛S北ORNk}ȧj" QrDrrtLXdB))v  ed7p$VSՔ1P Ɇ=+\wQ˙bk]fm-fn J7uIA $:ʮ--X8h˩:3a^kVrǘ>Coʙ ekguM"W-ݱ۶_oQ#]=Q 5(sMRb;oWtX9%[6ԊdHZ Z 6!у)kt=HىCr=zr+։J'$|q eN?GWos^+=Ş#Oۍ7C:QzRrz?AS19G[ T2?j sI&t<b3Z5-g^c7i<)=:l"HO*F 7#qHWJ@1皊|"V91<lُ;ɨtE{URpѶ{KafbIa/Ku·Jp㱨j" ք,a*0jd8qVPfN{W5GvvQVDז \2=+֪o"+>in9"FIm`sAZUd$yw+ϯҶt ,gBXrsjQȆqDH"IA"{s8¸iԕ9.(+mMMc$N\I }:SPX53 5U.=KuX[႞\ޯYa7,ql_s:w;{͒W!VڮQ1 _4~Gy-um6+[$sc+tnDyR1n"%,\ƹ+TM()V7=yӉuG_3>fiWMTݰ?QYч'# )oQ/ rϦitxE;;ӗ,kM5G#0[ךHrk_s"8ϭe,Yڻ(;dJOi/2af?\K6 cJ[Oܧ_Q4杬#k{K& g[.HGCk/ 0z^|(sѝx& jWĢNN+>S ܝ46FEI5B*rqZ^q:-d8/Yrƭ*݌ɲ״tr} 76JĪw8)_-u5@YsL#EE[Qps쯌*^VO0 p_W =WsYXs]p3\r\Ք rj6:VRz"֧K})!X q2qd&@9`+QV/R:zS ŭW $vÝʠW^t# kہzԭrڎ`Keo8@&kGlUڡ/ef!#\ܰ{cӵrVcBл: 5P1k#R#}̪z_%C15{1Lnv'9=k>fnaRӦcnI z^a'R܃``듛}+m˚d9QNls ºj^Lg\w[̎#޺0eecn/@ܜ&fw5&$?ֹıvWnaU^t˩eHDyKLf.yx li}I4Lg7L *vaZPS*Ep9jFD+ֶlL0H}j8xnY;iv+)'zZ.f1yB{S^pZHn8#GZܷFlm?:AaˤV6#?2xAIĄ^koRKP=W\?FSH.d͞VH%dKжC`U.ZFf$~FG-dpWnq?:6]n v oB@BNwr(%u<vA+=ZS/QRH,~Vq|rdI$n+NǜjM ޵46q$HBʧY${.&VB,穫8Uެ ZcVUnni!Vd)|ڝXѴƧ5} C FUė-^cy;6 d\ʤ?N Ьg4w[lF'@w9'0>BW\J&S;,ibU5r;$˯Tf;11๬牾>:6Fw"Z6?r>oU).Zi $T؜SBT`wZƵ8AIWXtO$+S5뫔ehwl@OgR|gaQ3V@AH7V^R\:}rUvs\o5ft*60s~45XJͳ`Os=n>U<;*#y%9g<(MC_jgWbp=Dbjzh;pi=_cLfT f$sO9:sޝP tJ)b]Xv9i0:E;:t#5fN՛dY--ЯW #.1jpqV\aANd*4/jdVnf汭RATp.!iӳWnjs]2Orj"SL('izd]ss?|,PU4ITdJL[ò,浊1 A\Mf- YĭJOWX Ո*3PLمq݉?c&kmVE+:?$UI}cǰ"Xҽz $y]Y>qX񷝨I 9W"I:5CLlֺηE I^#,}ZY?c"ho2;H1Ygfs<;`j«RI6ETraF>b>;?537*6z|6>iy=N0+CکMyCd!瓷ր<L7|1juEݦE'j_ee GR>?3U@Tdzrk:WQȕļZհ`}8ǥI9k۩xj١ вVf\V&[۝=z+6;lVyJBCtLzVS9X+)pjsjvۖC UX WK@OR*/ZKsǡ*-k- coZ#󭌋-RL3zR֗sօ1fv8.qax]}z7R@һޤE}jxߺj!()e^3ICKjjF@-6NZPhnr֝U4?(P641M##Ah?tY6m?v1I qޥm{(T٢9ܵ ]pG:Mf!S^L6ih+3 ?XY\^J[C,ӿHԳT5,]ԏmSH4JIjƓz#V4IBQyBjn4[vΡ#zPb;gɫ6 $yV4Kcsv$oqrsژϋhv DRw8f({qRzU <ՋDbāɮ~u-+bnzT/ǥC!x#sYs;̕`CcȌ֚f_7Ji\qIw(x񅵬ҷݍ Vo+[ KTR6ύey\坋jEa=k`Tݪ)i7+M^ ,dR?5KLa984jX f Z`4d hc}85@rh> FpjSQh Q=i۪|V-u vfBWl*@̿TIZϞw1{ *"z<K/_YX4˸0=~W4t2kZ6pZI0ҠF SRk[ŦhNݸq#>cF-!UF W^oRK"IO$SivJc Mzxw]HI˒5d3:|KY.nteʑMU:0RVGOC_ZÈo&v$T[^g= 帖;d`?li;m6h'S\ބ4Yu)}l 2#$A20bǷn9uz47.v0x {Z%)tcթovLz ˾8S+(ڢ]m:]s)zPF148eOQ]ГkSͫl,FF|E-7B? &Uf#?TjKɥ>ھ+S9Gt);#SMhQQΫ,|gzYnt_-k^Okȥ)*m 8ϿCͼ?>v3)Zv T+t Q)U~E5cjU֭7aDUvńXSTuŠ^ŠjHSv*6^$\g3)}+lB-xW»/;9,kۧl['n=J2O$*6@O%6R.:j٨2DB*h ?^A@Iأ^-/1)Of|~,=c@qԑc ,o8'4Ȯ_( l)nMW@ F;"o9<8^*ٙr6c ֘sr{9#Z`נfx?%b2$n}Sn۩E_5y'ޠz qa 5 cb*iJ˄ƊbMSH=jXKsC_\WZ4հpqE wݍy)ux&kU(cuXAUQ3L|OSSPDp٤d⚝sRJ2h +8SN=x6G0qLM&(&ހin[H5oH\P'5Z ^?ʕC!#ޙ5y #xڞb rOJU9l 3LMOAmt%%vak=/iIY[l\;VUcusz} K!<4ӮcY(8udaR[&g)-Vkqz=MR=&V=>X۹Idq|Ni}g"r|ojɺ[9#>o)|]G$V<Jyr \/TW7";N\Yw}IaJ G-+s=j7Lߍ[ Ld+­ u|3H۩ը qi x85_CU)W?ҧ<+-kVtd ~Kvj֚vj GF\%wFƱ_:Pi,4K#}Ms28*pk8hc6W\t-zoLqNi"SZl1T mF3JԪkR45ia źԯrKs$Yzs}MiZ֟uUUGa˸OףJI 7>@gS)\-Tڽ-M݊^lcԟҢ<(LYqpM[ДGOKK[WP,8-ZjXc@N y&Zc15˶# k΍gESڑy-qڹjFi9*+X4A@5]WNYX_ jtdGZjV6̯1Gz }BaK2W쟳x5+Fk+sݬ1UTʆ֮'%^i7&楌AԧArI2G>Ryc ?)5]5f֓?Wx׽cOR&= % pZ[V5aj*u["8415cڥy@!+!P-ҝGlr܊zSy#sQU 6xNr}P}끎"=j9+zP&6Z-q %%r\SUqV'B89B7v85#sM$bi0f.v՛"lG',j;*š1bxbʹ'im_+u><Vٝ4 Z ^ Q~5OYAqcIǧzFj*xq\=E\*=p8^>Gɻ亍"3nM^ig ?Ҽzvǒrx8y3 fV= Vl3ոFp0=*.k5Ř?Lքǎ+>o֙?Ҧ)PGקa9ZJlv*)7S9?QR0f3ҩ)А5pL{4 #{|p¨t ]\4ow]?-"}IaFǔ\A&pB?|R.=@6ʚ] /}oUr9巹L0\R\RZp`+n 7kVy bscE 1TJSnϭI28EKsQدwx0Sabo0}Gz͸8&VlH)3XJmrك}:-7W6JC)U\u_y+qyf(=n鿳yԡ~EršGU#کDs+g<ոsL t;j|Sq=i4QIr㹩6sP7$T3<xɫ1'5k@4|ob鳐&%mo4pv>s_ j7/yss!摤o9?ΪLj}괽kT@IJzRqL )a8&OXאjz*CvᎵxkw!{M<%TF܁+Ծɧu-*E /'$=U-qYhgURV4GF*%<ҹQq/$n) 2j:Frr'\ev54c]Nx?wes-lwLv WKx[ǭh_^-Hn5o4j;{u.Y'޻2u[T§:!yf%吖fcI䚟]Ogn7,C"s>ϹA+T敎y::3]ݛ5rC{q>\H> u-~ju!l}&h˶Tչqƛ7?J ;e:aIir?y JómձNDz y[.8c":hc_SjHmҝLQCmcGL\^Ss$1KL_@v96p3<~u{^7"q=]^:(֩_4MS̎^t5~N>BN#N [֭r1W"P iϥHܽEѺsI SN #[!J 튚MC1 xث#/HsC^uxN5Ա̠} ^3+=.&YȮw[Xd؈[xzٝ&3BsJ sf&R6>ƼRa.#Pvν}Zt&U#s)\)0 vU(Rjd'*Ҋ):zը@R)z (4jӴ\ (lkKr9 9hЌcQ EVbԛ>(PG0(L2\xqkǾ.xJhaq~EWm WG@ ,{$=EWSg|>YulvaBQ$cp(Q-]`Tӛklr+G-N3E+ lX0uѯ$ERJɐ [,|QC =\\^N@6A+i#֡Vʏ@zUkTE16!)EgIEk&F>Z(D'?7֊*PjxU pjeQEDGW-$wj,7*wzzQEmGcZvRvnx(cŻК E
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/2016-04-20T141333Z_87115155_GF10000389694_RTRMADP_3_USA-GULF-OBAMA-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

U.S. President Barack Obama, seen here with Saudi King Salman in Riyadh on April 20, is likely to focus on addressing issues of mutual strategic interests with Arab Gulf leaders. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque

President Obama’s visit to the Gulf region  should serve as a reminder of the important partnership between the two players

By Muath Al Wari and Elisa Catalano Ewers

President Barack Obama’s meeting with the leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in Saudi Arabia this week is a previously scheduled follow-up to last year’s Camp David meeting, which notably secured the Gulf states’ passive endorsement of the Iran nuclear deal. There is no comparable deliverable expected this week, and the case for low expectations is made stronger by President Obama’s limited time remaining in office. Indeed, the most important accomplishment of this week’s Riyadh meeting may be that it is held at all.  It should serve as a signal to internal and external audiences that despite differences and grievances on both sides, the partnership between the United States and the GCC remains important. This is not an insignificant message, given the state of the region and the tenor of recent Washington commentary.

The temptation in Riyadh may then be to remain in the relative safety of the transactional realm—the progress of working groups on intelligence sharing, ballistic missile defense, arms procurements, and so on. And it would be understandable to allow the language of security-related transactions to color official discussions—and external judgments—of U.S.-Gulf ties. There are urgent matters and interests at stake, like the continued anti-terrorism fight. This “transactionalism” inoculates such interests from the potential awkwardness of a risky conversation about the shifting strategic foundation of the relationship.

But the meeting could achieve more if it is taken as an opportunity to discuss the relationship’s strategic future trajectory. Despite profound differences that have complicated recent interactions, the U.S.-GCC partnership is still predicated on significant strategic overlap: securing energy flows, counterterrorism, and the prevention of the spread of weapons of mass destruction. But nothing will animate the partnership in the years to come as much as the necessary and difficult work of stabilizing and rebuilding the region.

Some voices in Washington have taken to minimizing the importance of the Middle East to U.S. national security interests, and are therefore dismissive of the need for active U.S. engagement. But even if we adopt the narrow perspective that limits U.S. interests in the region to energy, terrorism, and WMD, the reality is that these objectives remain tied to the initiatives undertaken, or not, by GCC partners. This linkage underscores the fact that there is measurable risk to the U.S. leaving the Middle East entirely to its own devices—as post-Gaddafi Libya or embattled Iraq illustrate.

This week’s meeting then creates an opportunity to abandon decorous diplomacy in favor of frank conversation about the strategic confusion from which the U.S. relationship with GCC states suffers. It will require the parties to adopt a paradigm shift, and to redefine the cornerstones of the partnership. Such a conversation need not be feared if its participants recognize that there is sufficient strategic overlap in their interests. Nostalgia can be dangerous when defining shared interests; today’s threats do not resemble those of the immediate post-Cold War decades. Conventional warfare in the region is increasingly unlikely, which limits the relevance of the first Gulf war security model. Mindsets, approaches and tools used to address emerging threats must evolve to reflect today’s realities.

But it is shortsighted to view a thoughtful re-assessment of the foundations of the relationship as a means of disengagement from the region. Instead it is a vehicle for maturing the relationship—to the benefit of both sides—to address the challenges of today and tomorrow.

On issues of shared interest, the U.S. and its Gulf partners in recent years have mustered, albeit begrudgingly, the pragmatism necessary to work together. But their mutual inability to speak openly and unemotionally about disagreements has also been exposed. The truth is that the U.S. and the GCC will not share an identical vision on the direction the region should take after the current turmoil, and gaps in shared values are increasingly visible. Leaving those disagreements unaddressed is unsustainable and will lead to continued misconceptions and misjudgments.

Consequently, any discussion of the strategic foundation of the relationship must carve out space for airing disagreements in ways that limit their deleterious effects, and when possible allow the divide to be narrowed. The U.S. will retain, of course, its core interest in continuing to press on issues of reform, inclusiveness, and protection of universal human rights. But allowing that interest to preclude agreement on meeting other common objectives, in today’s regional context, is akin to squabbling over how to rebuild a house after a fire without putting out the fire first.

The herculean task of stabilizing and rebuilding a region awash in conflict will require functional and effective partnership between the U.S. and the GCC—if only for the uncomfortable fact that neither side has better options. The lack of choice, however, is not sufficient to buoy the partnership over the longer-term. And as we have seen over the last several years, it may even contribute to the climate of mistrust and resentment.

Both sides will have to find new ways of explaining their partnership persuasively and coherently. They have to identify how their common strategic framework has evolved, and ways it has stayed the same. They should seek to articulate an affirmative agenda for the region that has some strategic overlap, one that can have appeal both at home and abroad. They have to devise methods of disagreeing with each other openly, without risking bleeding into areas of ostensible agreement.

In other words, the relationship needs to mature—and the meeting in Riyadh may very well be the best, first step in that process.

Such a conversation cannot be settled in one meeting, and it will be inherited by the next administration. But the beginnings of a serious conversation that seeks to clarify the strategic basis of the relationship is a far cry better than a continued debate over reassurance—who rates it, and why, and what ultimately is enough.  The start of such a conversation is a good inheritance for President Obama to leave his successor.

 

Muath Al Wari is a Senior Policy Analyst with the National Security and International Policy team at The Center for American Progress.

 Elisa Catalano Ewers was most recently a Director on the Middle East and North Africa team at the National Security Council, and previously served as Senior Policy Advisor to the United States Ambassador to the U.N.

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Disclaimer

Views presented in this blog solely express the opinions of the individual submitting the published material, and in no way represent the opinion or editorial policy of Newsweek Middle East. By submitting your entry for publication, you confirm that your submitted material is your original work, that it doesn't infringe the UAE laws and is not defamatory. You agree to give ownership of your submitted content to Newsweek Middle East for editing and republishing.

Entries may or may not be adapted for Newsweek Middle East's print version. Should Newsweek Middle East decide to publish an entry from this blog in its print edition, the magazine is not obliged to seek the consent of the primary person/entity submitting the entry. Due to the large volume of submission, we cannot promise publishing all entries. However, Newsweek Middle East retains its right to amend, and/or take down -wholly or partially- parts of the entries after publishing them.

This blog does not provide professional advice, nor similar services. By using this website, you agree to abide by this disclaimer in full.

All Materials published by Newsweek Middle East are protected by copyrights and intellectual property laws, and may be accessed and/or reproduced, only for personal, non-commercial use. However, your are prohibited from using material provided via this site in unlawful, fraudulent, illicit, or harmful manner, and Newsweek Middle East cannot be held liable for any harm impacting third parties in this regard.

Newsweek Middle East solely reserves its right to amend this disclaimer's terms at any time.The laws of UAE shall govern your use of this site. You hereby agree to submit to the sole jurisdiction of the UAE courts of law.

Facebook Comments

Post a comment