Israeli Documents from Days After War Have Familiar Ring 50 Years On

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?p54ج,t&MpCTԌjEN0MHm!ZX4M5bSE1SJbdRtǓSHsQՙ5qQ3W`4$qZQ'cHDatB)|XnCQtbUm)Y2ⴌg:|0hpS~Ե28`SM~(C&4loCQHo){GVrC6'V7߶=WsArZN(kjo MWw\>loZm6ƒjlG,77,{ik0EIm(3+$*7p*&ݵTޖ+^%B^TfsOPýYEYj8enա2!*;ҷ$+"K!P>|$W1՗g:n,$ʠR10i6CYfHLH(̬ ji+$VB3MB"oj.gsBzWLik#7&&s֙mjc\%"!#Vu*shlD5m{a۶= ]u}Lj5P`}N؟Br du=MSasx[7T%zZޢ=_=-ïzi[8hazޝICG}"d@#^9@ܪdz A}5##'ma|+"vW_z5ҶTu TݜBR>+<3sncE$ xYTeƣsZI bDe>WvAa]xN&lҸ僒VOs2瑅p[zև{d[ ˾t~=jIn K4(jE` U{\ӛ@jU ^\YN5GҸkSƢcE~ԓA!;l?̣2J%#I]iӗ8xѝɮGI+*Q4u6qăf y*QJN2*@}kb[T/mZZjV,.; "k`jF`ZI1S- FmBmV2yffiAS%SOW' OaYVUjZE&ZAn*\y9MIixM(PA%Sɪh榌Ur Զ8cn9qYH-#Y\R%41-<14YRB-K.W͹7@kbؾ2+VMFED84߱5CK/lܬOsͅN]65H,K~Asp{hz"ٯjAfc^gazS7qal) G)R\_c_JpO H_ vmpzSSأJkGjO>H@ZZ,0T 1ҞE5et.JGCNQ1]査RGJMQOj/#iYOlٍ*hycԚ|T 5.>x?j>UYgj3V\?t'$V!u*##>FLvI5h[^4+'&*Ȥb@-WhE{ڦ.bǚӹ'͕ <覬DddjYao ߵh@i“\̬}wNv!S\5ʈ֪kO~*dL@j#zU-3QRYڽÀZt:8֕+(+ r+HqtQc<J77vuF)l.)vrMH* i x#"+@MFD)I¼!T iȠg8e9M $t\585CN8zpjPjGrpj"'NjQҢCRR!qT&֌ QsWdVN)H[Ds|VcLMبiݗ$*CfOjٰFFkCjGWY ')jgt""Z*]vgf8h P)BJFEa)6h h1TiV`W' Aiv@\VBwnn#BҰQfAr#^ sZUn1X` tK R*3UbݍO ^H-JDu5[t(ZP3җR3\b=r 9A>r)1@zSM8!ҁHvȠ1ցǎ)~j@Wv"5"ۨ^jMց'0"ke=*o1= QkSڕbt=j,)qUp#樤V*iLp4\1jL5@E4"bWxq֭5uR V}+EhթV1V=Ʒ|;TnUB\Ln{mx⪽vŒV\N&WB426>ӌ`kfFJ%Rҕȱ2ht9!jBPZzPF2*rjQMYPIVTlEB)6h'{S4#S)EFӃ֚N='n&sW#jgp! x  Wu ?i'HW5[ aoK0$Rc #BE(@& \}jZsh`5GS)R(Bh>s$ ڻRb1:YOlv8 "R,WF\f[tJ:ivH+2tXGvt}¹ \&Gpbc+m^_.ѽOw 3{VV7ay$ySҺ?ՈjDoSTȪz,F(X842oMR )YiSS㨥pI֥Q3@TE0Ԭ)Wq)SE$bӅ&Q@KE*ԫ֣QJVšP#TVsVcOZTR&t-=g^8P鹸Gq޽֐PÚJ۬j#-#tsqi+h"5>cVS5G_8`Չ_sxB6KR&0G ~j hk38G4Qȣm \jYVae8YZmj?LbF6ŭd ~*׏#rA5~Y <Xz'v8.Ų)q[嶚7Fdi6Qu4r47boSPQCC*@h85ZPèGujnI0#bim ~sڴoY]5xׇ1;+!H9flb޼R9╀{^Nw]`\rsCQǛD4ZLVZRD9L ݫF#YU\{r[>/"w w~E2x汴 sfWeV/ukiӱI}B<Ʋɐ1ULH<؛biBʅ{f;XŠ:pK"'̠)Eٝ 0Xr( H )|JVQԶX =miYEp4Tgh6摖HGer)K%Dh)8Ph -%:zԫQ )1N9A! lBIvri*(Fk]|½32#U XDEbk`W;E+x18Q܂p)b :"JpOZ\ s@1iI9QPeU`r8uMrz]Ec 3 sZTb\-#ZQm|r{.bp &ѥufeƛLgZҼ?{{2o4+kIi7޽DSu^XIuDl@LS5i.iel#GZYdTMT2^u=6Z45[m`+As]ChQK|Ws 8#/+gjeoLS^B [JC9Q6|Q:ڧc-%=+62̅dS0AWݦ7 /őͺ2هRbht&HOkú'խ)nOz":@jOQyjEj, RI+9>4rR#d-S2%)cYJ%)M6ӌHvKe\ ?yFV犱~G5&zR\p+g Tڇ|2;V?Vv/ګ|AgZEgp2M$ף#kܧ4G##AYn& aLD}qyX;Ij5jӡ_>5sBfj]yC(!n)lO4R Ju!!R-zS&ƠsS5Ei`SA],uq-P+ex{w,q.-[u%wK@5cMAkeX jsRnܹL1L7#pF1Up]$$$c\ψ5謢b7vh;< W\O5ܦ[,݇a\x\i{ڝ'-^ڵ'fx_N8xUaxҜu2+ղYAWmp+SZѫLtyYJpԓ%T,5ҟMzEGMԓO i7Lp~NWQrKZK~S-ķ2@X,|*N=+{B0 {=L\RSHQmU픖цpk`^)oJ;WJMQni)x|ڏưfk N+$(agzȇ?FCj{7ýO .ֹ*:{0kʂ i-ImdqE4dS{_mOj9xkJÂja^)sRRh Us4n!ԊnUO2\GҒYJ#2qSŴn-SbsR&tA^o3r-^dzu:"dSⶅ(m=:Y˺#לM#aA8T4^#d$zV8.=V 3Y\B~d$zS } ,VGR ؟F 粸HR\HIYa A}XӽL.xSkuoZ.JGߏ w>qu k~uW-_?ل1p{yb6B9):Su\ī~,3@dBva\UhTţx2]1^̃)ϨH)bI?1 /J_,h &ciR b?Rni\׵aqkk-aN8kF̼Lzי4jzG gsAKH;{HaNO’i( (֤ ii@H*7,mHm޽BTH.I"~MY^᫴1*:d*[97n☭;S_t *'Ixl2i5CF ޝyQOjx'5C_I|uAA.}cmSΊtzȮ& ťcRF 0ۑ!Ҙ# N,g[cT֛"*”jFAۚYvJ]=GʶʜRmhg6l<.? 7*1[m5]60X-Ĝ?huٮX , VukN?u)kXFL+uyu N J[ LēQ^ ,ij9*UrhwInkl^{j"MIiWΥ Os3aUG}}UIYWKv3Hgû_؉O̿ {@KIK@RE%-RRQAkʾ&&9,L}c^E|-75ZqQYxO0jP5GA_.|@ wtf40) P)T}o3v{)H=h=ݼH@eAN J`x@Fw HE"h~RE[zF(VˏzԂu]OH!|ey|I|eh"R4>$$.32γ'Ll?*U*zEձvdM5f{903UּӠi x4pDyQO[s¥Vaޘsi@v7v2 -'&5?n!):y A3%&%ݤG0Ib&t-+p: ӮZ K^$vt;Q湽mCןW:c`$qjQ#;fQ㹤'h4׸p4 L1iҚ)s:nh!4.$|*|P^i,lgQ?4c qF8huխ z0SVI"&@ơ{pE\ ޑu029!lV%3` FE63P*{P!OýHFѰ@,ޢYT:})zGz746< *T c?r*ho= 30hV ~Th=EhAIS\SL+Uvmս[L>xX0} aX۟AY7 RC hoZɀġFܶWD@뻆x&kXZ$>.pԧ'ZZ׆;|A9^iX"(@γgĚyMV}GzK>(' j<oV(]sod=B-xftFI.SNO;mi&F_jϭ!=Fg j9:[0o*UˑD *LqMT,QWSz<,ոqSƤnOO.zvlGޔgw #Ҧ<@3MtuGR@3FiuBjB7 3Q.)jPj2M*"Zi(5z aU&=NkTbVucҽD [o5q p&,u"u#F7(#s1W?<9yOsڪZI-ܞ~9 1~Gd)"'קJPOqVK)Kq̵,H82ߦp~[Q2@A=RWgY*_qM(r2+&8i#{i{ܮSx>iC`¹v̲T=_p7erxm٠mǡj֞6x̾I{tp&pV8K帔3cQ*hⰵ &ȝ?"8TGN;_ L2:(I/+\&Y< {_W;EtH䏙ϠQZ7c4|85t@MJXEKR0(QEQMf2M[)ǩ3SYЀބg}*բMݿeE܏Ojͣi[fُi-¶+-ǹZ`fڱBO'~Q5nGC꧵|ᖧ^0ךQ?-SoJڣ扣aV{Ѱؚ_|$ooOxw2[ȸe>;T=h;S aZo4@gL@ $zL/5[ӠycGOzGjz%Ơe`yǰ^ ~X4dCW^4.|br2cthX)nt#$D?y޾1UWR57c>!e*XH›-jX8?x[+ǼeMSyZI&7)3KLCÃޜ98V# B Oqz4 0=*ЀUvV/ K-K#JU'1'dIK# tWm#T Z$H@y:׉Zl"QE+JKIGVtXzR"iXFOM*ӼtYޘt(F;X3p*Ef[!w#K!@2XlS*M8⣙AHy)E]SL.ZJsugyT.O6S)w<8Xf'bvJ鞌ERc#֡c`:[D\njs:Mp䞦3NW/6i;vQܟA\omu{,tY@;}A xr"bK3LG,}TiݙNx+:w,O˃<ϧS8Hb[:PI;)PH@Dd.aA&b"BAnv"(E LcR%$oSO-RQMwXл(&e `4ؤIWr0"LF%$z{[譹ʹqmVyh-b#@[zu5CS4(vK;ְXɿ0kG5# pJ9ES_-mDydQWg\{k;a]dU#U>JSg[G3JvW<)Z;-7B5mb| PZocGDRp -qCp)8eaWk]CLu'7H$.pqL`@:;k9#<:R!mft2 W.N6Eӵ{U9Of{i>4v\W߇?mɻȾQ8?ƺkn D PpEMY>1ρul!/j]F2*E}ߨVrZAżk"^mO,Lr=?Z.+A ip.Apa?uw"mm[_Jz xgTKi9# S_@xV//9a>c٥mbmV5U@vM"H2SEWJo algx$F!'>S=+ʵ $u Y#Sٯ=?QmhaIaA =黈+?>gܩ {@4Koڼ- +} Ub杚sB0á0%aךymfS׊8#T3JИ旊2J ~"ձR)OޝT2?uNw)Kr~i£P#@DL5ZyQ1Aڕ'\欝5SI? k-5V'b=l|` i rO8kEv\p@j2YZ֝vpލ 2H{3I=Ht\}e|H#^E+ᘢEjZhwW<(F=Mǖ߈<^jA *JתE҃kϮ)cV4ױGQX[6R?J|xfb2t ,g!@1V#D,#Vz|z4JOjQ1@ hua\l)u河Ҭ(c,ա]g8vXկ|U|&VNC~ڰ^4UoBmoS8wASSR lia"p㠪 7)-^L>i-},*#zjQ(b`cqP$Sxpq@|iK W6@vB3P%pTva\ Pq# p9rWPE5%A>~y5?1EL(B/&qt5ܐ9IVw`i=IrZQKiWM-ĭQϠ{wM݁Gvo ۀݶqķ?^xκ#8L?~e%>:@+i"~amiKQ4$|Z<Ñ#zlуx4QQ8pQԔa:RHi:QրhWk`yQfO MG@ p5E{if]ѱ•+ךIbd*\V'q:qG{DzQU 8߽}x^Eh3P:}sҪ 2 B)$Y,qTPB7 /4Ȯei :O ՑinXl#vpv2=NђA xvqy#2gzUѬ!M ԫM='[60@8<`#@<_R0a b=i\qy9ws cENNir)iEdb=vnu!퓜gֵb?Q5 }jFW1W)`)"aHh2) Ը""ȦH {V/|=a=n!9WBVR>l=CM>?yͬ<7$ȏn^Y!Aλ29t0*уBUPB}Xc%w}ICEL֦M5ǖn/z0N{zPLZLa8,0=_wVhFU Nb$uɦXSUkB0e\ 'bxl7ܰ{~mkv0-R¼Ԥek9 ܅sծ5'-__xP6RO)Zku_F@ȯ2^;#+ ȧQ9{9&&NIL.C$zSKSXӖb8V9QsG 9Iʞyf).[Br=*);HRaчV%;9^is;$7͹rOzT 8L'r:0>R?ޏ6֚H.xiOs\l<褛-V *Ȥf%$GlT26[Qy!AG5.{ɱ@}jgr6=z;1I`~4đWp;6Yg>jgXL!/>ޕf[AIM _Zܦ+iQAz$2^ez1˷(p6uR{?\ngb(=8I>@\g=qҬֆcF;uZ i^ C̍'UspNAF2LzWPF7dqޠW1xc@LeEHxvC+nq;~go"FErpxGC}:{[``Ag~{pF*9"Wx#E3{Eă+EMGNZ3@ ֫Oj1\g"q GE^Y7NT0E69H(֩A<1e<Zyeov$c̿CڬKBml1y{#Y[{R2<7'N￴ݢSpRc*Y9`'jMh<7x3``+oiubr@oD̄xInQ6-$4%H񑷹M_7yDڍB2=gRI5IN+Λ1i϶=kD"+]>53v?2I.B>NFA'}qV'  *%ʗ;^E\gzBX-z/1څ8\&E.cydy=_$gz-ȊEfP .~eSVs.oszĖ%ٙ]}y$ڶ-u^z!{nj7b-Nqxa[VZ7V>\TJ"RL|?#o> 1+ q֛-@(=H`iԥi2#)ym,rd8l aKy;epŸ :l.#!p ǝ͎o5Es)j(d+pH5Mn2W7TUi[m˞1U{SYs{¼`C#+=Ļ d;Ӹ*mQxi'كWsFu$ xcx 6p6RcBĨ$Li@ Jސ dW\dr3ȤKYX3g}iEGs%ˀ}t#4R+7GzЖ6S$͓Yc=>{# cSKK9`zw» νM*(\s^*{rx[-ы*0ǚRy\QF݌ ԨGA@ 2r=C$(9Xo$f8\ XR# +|YaBg̈~XdW |E15b=Gp+I7RNIj"o -SvYtߝs7^\I3Yh׊qcWJ[0v4Ud =ϕsڳ*嶛 I0jMPI1M!\,䞵 568T&ɼԫ.zsS9O(XFC(ajsvʤqR)XwJw| i.IQ$)(JӤhu_Ɛ)clzchb{T&PyFʲ%y'j Ȕ#y9>vq w75 @"/=mvcbzn,$gԎ?J>i4 M H-ld'.} U AN?; \lcpY :8XzUK:A$ %ecAj21Dkdh={⬫ES\F$f꣆J[Ve?̜?Z`]Aw˸S?>ʬQE !΁9=մylbmgF*@177 qZGIw%\ߚƃy''mE*K%&6d~ktM";FAjQRcETxf 8x tΣV?#Նe9 (3DGlR)7qrNTsijDvI-!Rf'=zTiUc%e8XwrUp޿RiAtZSn\q^º77$g#Sz$Czwc:/$6Ei 2rxjKOnM4ANҤv׭2)TJcl2@d;:V% {. eGeႜ⦮jM;m$XwI&F-N{V MH.!8+!sb;ǝb<(w dn`W+>tz\gF,daW_^[=E,'f(FsJ\ے%JS^a㯄:f]i$iv{}Ez|qxdIeNEHEexfbyΟ4mC'Ặ$&eu% G}χlnO&&>{U',|izĞ |:sGC:;CvNfp(Rd`fFyg@;*3M}(֑T֝ӂ) mJ"O )s2Ga^$[{Q$7@UՖEyoA/c'w%'e`r힤VsqǡxYmUlc*W:rd=e 2IFX JGL),)۞:d%eMWy٪sUv$Hwɦ׊1&Wa\''N2gT(fP0  4Zc˱q#K0OcNrl:`xM]RKx 3RnCHZ ZC_T'eYiLOѨ\Kܳqۑ'|y>q!3 QV=+l/ZʴcڵⷎT{ s4mkXWrkid9K/fQpIr"H VG 0'5a- R}OK.W'֧<2Y)8?ZdWPC)Lb?48A02 |oJKiDO|=GZH;=qB22? K%¶Ѹ#ԓLtaW}A z{29eH#J_G29'ҬWPA!&gʟ1Sc֎Es:4n:HpQvNNkLF%pOր!2G W"sW{B$@ sɠ,YM玙Ǩ韨sҪȧ9 >p92/&U 0ݎ֬$sx u)AF U89jdT[<ih8IuTNK%3<гG+.>ԑ3==MXIi"rGRku"ێnM kby\NV\gwG# a?F6c F:PVFmpUGA*M8ؒ'SF7, s۷)'3}<~Kz+s7mn*zjޛd㕈}7O{:Ev@V(h.1$vP5C1؃lCwP5%÷P8'\-VEa NzVEydVqLj}%} qS4oi7z? C4(]n0ZrƗހ9}By<%ʹ$zTIwm(l@\=N1]eV9C 39UK+ΝA݉ra;G!= lQŨ R #|Ӝt?jYO]Й7*3B3Ru(5K1{_528*F5A佶^u oƝڀ=koFKr¼iz#޸/ª sF1@uh sI\Ecc Ҹ8Sط. }^EiO ^k^ZY3B۪ ҷ5IO Tł֡(v-څ6\.IZf[V$`"c2Ir>sIZʴP 4o i0notީǭhu ojqBܗczxN=K [sݴSDU(#T5DQ0?`I6¥zÚ,+3WS,cҘ\9 NX)8=)A *eN)N{P|=)W ӔU)Yd&,x'ukxA`Qa*B4yq5va*{4d3she @&bA#MIޚ9EH("icI4'zP]GQ)R@c-l0r:I4]A3.0@aS11) #NO?1 \0@FqIkm/<ǯңF-U'c푟H-Id ","r; `u\ jFspq<CoZF(Lx[Nq4u!?_n@$F`00;?*zgB@ )gH){g wS\63e@Tf$OzX^`qQeΥ0&&Hx;j2UF)Xitv# p Ƥ-M4| Q S%0YT'UqgTb#2RR3iޙFpU P(5}Nw,ZSMkIt\`R\X$q-Ӌm%mfG*sۓ Ȫ7>uW1ɲx*]3ǯEh]݊;w]F%Fc|Eh@Ub3;abH㺍#k.nk* 3|9mnۘu q#4 TT #nleٮ]t`oFwoT"9cNT61:PF:95b;;xyUBKJ:=z!Ԥѹo*MJ ]gޮGi\EMfwʕyTVSkǗ&^+[7Hx죠"[%ϱAs f' ;מxVZ^;Q9$CҎQFh2;Zz[k)kXJ*ZWx?$qt?α_l*U`Oko j.ǙjW'GʧޚE}qGGaJ{ ~[U i`2W!#c8ɬ*C)6E*c()ZZP:\ɥ)LGZI\!..j!Ҝ9jyLVcASGiNdݰ8 < c"%zɪդCgҴyj11ں-F aU<_$Wǚ߆c/o`?^u5m6>?Z9Z؋Bܚ-5 e<aaCp\1MKX R,t DHUi<M-gJrhzt AA=AҀq8Ҙ 0h$HwZp8 :gښsR)#@.pp0$ AQyxqzp49tSsFʛR ,bHG7w bR%:.3҃ӚW#Z)0F {yB _$'~#cs$! Uf=@qeP\o[ `=.V̐K^;-Õ uFz˺& =?UK|A% ];TbD0rs&9f'=@p @q:jjLQKI@ w ;H878j#) *$䵊kZ9J`zԊ#5)>ՌZO4mZ>k.wĻI2H#R@QԚuMk~c8^)R~HqZ/@1kvsgjՒT\u v1ЧEA9\=i@^9[ S#.UM~n SL{]Mb)]Ĩn V5km2s* ʌ{4U` ?׮z^.7{W%aG>՟q5J~4CU_kZ=0 x2V[ďjpj6P1pA!UEkEڮA&=*G`*rQYNղ\[l^RgU9U3$fCJ6;qhA_s^5ZO]ښ&oyf:}Z0 nE2ȡWKF{Ry |+{/-(-d5p(ǃ=i:t 2HE#ޜ94M.Y`z}XbB9 =9PKw*pq@Ɣkh@9;4r^008*x4䅐82+ʩS(pJA3h?R)RHs{ԫu;)$m d Tr\K2p697Gs3P*8a0+)9TR;|XyAN1rvBz&TF3\Kx$CUI/+cMvӤGLgJؑii/9*áS͚&E2MZ&| ݏJ*-rh$$Ki&~TZŶ0֩ꚝ\\@:s袸*rlkصwu;4/#}ט-,yOZ`M Sk*EHA.TOa]Dž<.szWVr@B@1bDPp8#CRT&i3G)pié׵0Pq? QO"E|QR:R5YXph#堨,0׏Piplu\d҅-17QN4!H@]iPǒ*9@z-B% )\csJ!',kOL⣖QPؓ^*V:r[W+u}$4/8c4%=e.V/j.C1O&f0 [ƘmB.rvPY^2z0?)܌Bᛦ0""1}DZ=GUpd)"7qK'$Jq'wzn\fWsOk6 mp"SzI-ʯ{sZi#1S\+苌nIec yAp9cTuitwlVYƲ<~"x7+[hz\R4|@ߍuLȭ"zRkHP.ƁWqO;ӵRNa WZ X^1IM\ wQj(tق pC#$%ҚhWbNj&nI3A$6HUyezIxVa,fzYtY3F}z R$~{}i+14_>"ޟ+#.xakњ}Sxem4]ޝʜystBMVd9 kHmEI3E'}sV snJ-'f0BwИPih4fn#N i4lR1Ҍn=O$*q?0z`9\H2"*欰T Q|ݪNJҁ0g4}h87Ji_J$Ps4CPGԙzSWKz9U$į,L#uW)UW%' N8A5Z5EswətQVNV4u-]vTdjӆ3]3nih`'֖f!HrHsR HԖ5dv@*w#I+sս'N#DfByp87Clm%bK1NbYf>߇+}2HPV}*SI9I)Ҝ=@ KIA_x(opiCl klnqEDۓFE "|C@ apU|}EHj6^>R?M5p% IR9 z`^)2_ZV`+/Qcvӌ\7bv^F +5C3Unn$}1'*݌Cr+df}%m0)Lue )nߍ+b -ͽu+Pi\ea-6kedHysߍ :z$`[ɨI W9Xo¸jWrE#~:P}O@>_S|-6܈NހvO_"얩֯GϭxVN3Pz(+_rixڇ-`١PzS\P0?R&1J3K) rMB 4MM `EVF2j=N YzUх5f[}S%r+m8Ud*ޭFŇJgHwn*h~~IQ*d MĞLGpEo+&T{6p"W^uPеIHS ]%o -d):o¹ilW?k J;]($aM6JQExY"b Shf}!.bKgc=GֽK(hrPsǽ|l #z/S :3JiX:Mx2Tם:{rV]?P$.='qhf5jp4 -34HACtHhAeR2H@ޚȮ0pOcYt9Hu=qN7Hm*z`Inn!qCчj5MHsOZ Y\W4A&:8#qSހJh(#=)RsNzklЙ-GZi6쀲JrRրvMx>*x{k"fgbIc)k4nS3J98hsV,d~nω.Z&8:\+H'RBF>󞂫E!^y8&~/U-me,Gެ#o~4XZ#|{&-#f,rI9ɤK-oYnCg>f\XZ+GLVFq;U+8l€S"! ƑdBҤ#uGGpU@?8MҫhzQZLҔZ=)>#"4hH@&M"*+ӺS$U'8G5 rvnwI\O: ޝ-^rsRRcʧvk(O4ޘZ#dfǓM-Qo!q {),pOk7L|S)+BO5iA%QҫjzDB2pu-i &8=z 婈oH(;MkŶ:Tf0㏗qWz<+)> (7D ۖ+]&u\Ϧ+,hzj0imQ%"Z_),N ͨo=H~ܵ>EGaE3I+3s3}IюqK8 *uodV{=Bו\j-qw#I+w&(/5ۯ2>Ct1*I*[;I.$ cWS©n=2*\/PFQBE Q!&i3Z`-KLbH'J3LCcu8"'m(N(ݞ'# hԙ49'JBVvl1ETb쀻4b`j9)of_KtQU]N!˰bq$ޘ[ޘM&ZcIU{IfSԹ%ɫVM7^Znk>1fNti:Di}z*(+ZZ+ cW-uq9{ٌSPG5 ()9n^ũ&u)oWt;SלGooݺ*忇C)/",}1\>#^j=wO{ԬMxHTMg0ҞR#>w^=֡p%UBrIczS@Mx q#4q֓-!nuh& (fm 8T`҃JIE4\`'ҷ\D^+Stz$VXذG5F+P*)2HjX#FiRj1\ҶxOJ"bg*w)HH&!=Pb#݈(.<ѶdE`ѢyzkduWİoQM2I֘A&/lmԃ]qOګOoWkFe*}U)+VMdDsY#) Զ2iQ*QEOew5m#G" zׄqoDw#kǩU0e8#Ɲ4Mz}8\l~샚a<.JC:O+k5+|=qN#ɏ=+=b=\t}r ;d m+qT$QLLni8#edMժ6rE0s@=€)IIހihnyV8Xf\BnƄ$)F ſYVU-ҢN!˰fv,}iqH)չ\QEzҐ(!h'-lI>Lv<4ʳXj4gzCK.쾵Ъ@9(Yڶk۵0Ş/h- 89X9;,YfUSsZ:odxѩJQ{omL:-yAGGyVyf㊃Y0-|>:u[Qa‡ ? EU$OQnRV9v◶h8*4piѰ G1FixL)8=ah҃E4 QN ((`+SHkYBr@qmڸPAFMKZ&3̖VSChԡnc:Rhi4 z5JW*hZj㹩 b3 kOw/s+B0yN)Z 㟕9`>=EcEtFN ]m°phӚpxUn IEi$2p E, Mj=q`W&>GPte$0 O$dVhVA(tBs r{"1U8#{Մ*]C!V-%UVA^x1X/ofdʐsZw#Kk 0^qq>è*r LCE#m]ݝW1+Tq5b(N!ӅF "ƤSLzTWۦ]}+&X)_ZƖvtՒhrNPJ|d $}]ʴ3nUkk'69J^Q@ )sMK;hzngZ.i>T-;JHp ZRʐ$@+"Dmⵏ;i58(f`pkeՈ=AnAWfEYQ2# A^AMw!nx^¨1$ի+I.$ 'ҳnDPX&/ ^KY'R Qb 5uhH,`) * ڙҌ wj`(P!ATRH]qHiWv5,e8SϬD.&\v;h2#`Os7PEɞ%Q.\[kYY _0痾%VRTVAr$k)Wk=Km80*P (4"zJN#k.EBz W:jhgh\4sIւ\t"HydEe*eī?#PInhnRAWeV\t?ƩqAV ӑMI'۲9Jܒ!TخdP&_qQ֩܀E#ᐕaShx3MH[ѵw =e=+qҺ xGRF/nzڢPOƍC!~^'k^"]iJf#@cPH;Q}6uϳG2k \1`=wbx;k/W+Y) @AT,af`zUj* !d˸BQ`RʨtF+$-㉡UyaS}@?0Ns&-]>ha@ebY ;LG N>kOҖ</7l@D$pk|E^-%䄦xN±(GټA3g @p3jƵa.rM`j`VUR=@e&R;CdPBw5oFhi=Mfx_S+txDgx b$PQPiqNh pN )š)s`;5SPVկ㲷ixpA!t^OѢ$bh֏/ҳyWWF`jNIsRĮ:sY+7=fh$e4{i&pOֺK+E!@>a<4 Z:~ h J-C{x{zORpOQ5+ٮ/eS 5-cHBdpOar3и+񏎯5Z+vhpz"'M-5g@wȭm;O qA(*sb+:V&G=*%M=FZTWJ0}kR'Y*A٬"6~slsnwTl:H2 Rb=CspD]SdbO~$dͽ|ǎ;P:uqDҌYIicrw: !I*&V75HE_jNJ=i03mBbR1Qs0D$jd;W&@g|)}~854sNBZ\Q-%C#sYOQ]ZۃU!V{$:21kҔ5,f9 $Uu%5rVAe)ƚ@R;Pȣ8րڗ4g4{HEpsM( ޓ)g4i~L 0 Rњ3@ "EIIEb efbpEwtU-ti KCOc 2PMz晪A}hdeBzW#sHC>hc(4qrh,$Vƪc \j]$Jy]vD:UgXZR"^5'"K (I_xLckkIKc^7kwKu+0'&V9,MkiFB\r=j1+wEnuUcCN*K}mV5Jw<ׯieAb@) "OzU*HMu*Ҫ-8q@ $W]uR䭠5v!U+c)LQ(ސFi)ҚCPMK E%8Bi֗4ԠINԤqjJ)2E0 ѺmԠ@Ӂ E]%(QE&)wRz3ᖻK?!^{OA]vG4-^ù \,0@Bֱ+E3H.`U=E%jkf}iB*OM&{ i4HMbQE!6);0l4ؤKJ 46ii 9OCt?RqL͔wCO.OpZ&[h T-$l97TꇹMUymWZ#"hzSShd(6 ;֫"UYm3Ѩ8;xf+;3EtomZ6)<Frv>+)+Lk''&IV!)hc =pN^Y_.Nd"iZi:8T\$ҫH3OAXa&^i&÷TrIk>*K&EW-L3IڪĊܚ%ytU`|l^18"v̻tMBsw\ԗ* r}jKW94ֺTq\̞%*1ҢjaT@4ϭ'JLҞzR) -PQE. 9.(;G/u fSK+lr=H8(BEg(/J(MQ@hQ@E0E`R(Q@
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/2017-05-31T060439Z_1579518172_RC1D0B463D90_RTRMADP_3_ISRAEL-ARCHIVES-1967-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

A researcher scans declassified documents for Akevot, an Israeli NGO researching the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, at the Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem May 10, 2017. Picture taken May 10, 2017. REUTERS/Ronen Zvulun

By Luke Baker

JERUSALEM, May 31 – Within days of capturing East Jerusalem and the West Bank in the 1967 Middle East war, Israel was examining options about their future ranging from Jewish settlement-building to the creation of a Palestinian state.

As the 50th anniversary of the outbreak of the war nears on June 5, recently unearthed documents detailing the post-war legal and diplomatic debate have a familiar ring, and underline how little progress has been made towards resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Akevot, an Israeli NGO researching the conflict, has spent thousands of hours over two years gaining access to declassified, often dog-eared, documents and building a digital record of them.

The group’s aim in obtaining the files, at a time when the Israel State Archives has restricted access to its resources as it conducts its own digitisation project, is to ensure that primary sources of conflict decision-making remain accessible to researchers, diplomats, journalists and the wider public.

“One of the things we realised early on was that so many of the policies related to current day Israeli government activities in the occupied territories have roots going back to the very first year of occupation,” said Lior Yavne, founder and director of Akevot.

“Policies that were envisaged very early on, 1967 or 1968, serve government policies to this day.”

In six days of war, Israel’s army seized 5,900 square km (2,280 square miles) of the West Bank, the walled Old City of Jerusalem and more than two dozen Arab villages on the city’s eastern flank.

On other fronts it conquered the Golan Heights from Syria, and Sinai and the Gaza Strip from Egypt.

But for the Israeli prime minister’s office, the foreign ministry and assorted legal advisers, the thorniest questions surrounded how to handle the unexpected seizure of the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and the 660,000 Palestinians living there.

“THE WAR NEVER ENDED”

A little over a month after the war ended on June 10, 1967, senior foreign ministry officials had drafted a set of seven possibilities of what to do with the West Bank and Gaza.

They considered everything from establishing an independent, demilitarised Palestinian state with its capital as close as possible to Jerusalem, to annexing the entire area to Israel or handing most of it over to Jordan.

The authors explained the need to move rapidly because “internationally, the impression that Israel maintains colonial rule over these occupied territories may arise in the interim”.

While the document analyses in detail the idea of an independent Palestinian state, it presents most positively the case for annexation, while also making clear its “inherent dangers”.

Option four, listed as “the graduated solution”, is the one perhaps closest to what exists to this day: a plan to establish a Palestinian state only once there is a peace agreement between Israel and Arab nations.

“The Six-Day War actually never ended,” said Tom Segev, a leading Israeli historian and author of “1967 – Israel, the War, and the Year that Transformed the Middle East”.

“The seventh day has lasted ever since for the last 50 years. And it is affecting both us and the Palestinians … every day, every minute.”

SETTLEMENTS

Perhaps the trickiest and most legally nuanced discussions were around Israel’s responsibilities under international law, and whether it could build settlements.

Palestinians and many countries consider Israel’s settlements on occupied land they seek for a state as illegal. Israel disputes this, citing historical, biblical and political links to the West Bank and East Jerusalem, as well as security considerations.

After the 1967 war, Israel annexed East Jerusalem and considers all of Jerusalem as its “indivisible and eternal capital”, a status that has not won international recognition. Palestinians want East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestine.

Nabil Abu Rdainah, a spokesman for Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, said Israel has consistently violated U.N. resolutions and the Fourth Geneva Convention in its actions in occupied territory, particularly in Jerusalem.

“All these measures … can’t change the fact that Jerusalem is an occupied city, just like the rest of Palestinian lands,” he said.

Theodor Meron, one of the world’s leading jurists who was then legal adviser to the foreign ministry, wrote several memos in late 1967 and early 1968 laying out his position on settlements.

In a covering letter to one secret memo sent to the prime minister’s political secretary, Meron said: “My conclusion is that civilian settlement in the administered territories contravenes explicit provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention”.

Meron, who now lives in the United States, set his arguments out over several pages, but they boiled down to the fact that Israel was a signatory to the Geneva Convention which prohibits transferring citizens of an occupying state onto occupied land.

“…any legal arguments that we shall try to find will not counteract the heavy international pressure that will be exerted upon us even by friendly countries which will base themselves on the Fourth Geneva Convention,” he wrote.

The only way he could see settlements being legally justified – and even then he made clear he didn’t favour the argument – was if they were in temporary camps and “carried out by military and not civilian entities”.

While in the early years settlements were militaristic and often temporary, the enterprise now has full government backing, houses some 350,000 civilians in the West Bank and has all the hallmarks of permanence.

Meron declined to respond to specific questions from Reuters.

But in an article this month in the American Journal of International Law, he expressed concern about “the continued march toward an inexorable demographic change in the West Bank” and the appointment by U.S. President Donald Trump’s administration of an ambassador to Israel who has raised funds for settlements.

There is, Meron wrote in the journal, a growing perception in the international community that “individual Palestinians’ human rights, as well as their rights under the Fourth Geneva Convention, are being violated.”

NAMES

Immediately after the war, almost no element of Israel’s land seizure went unexamined, whether by the military, the prime minister’s office, the foreign ministry, naming committees or religious authorities.

In a memo on June 22, 1967, Michael Comay, political adviser to the foreign ministry, wrote to the ministry’s deputy director-general saying they needed to be careful about using phrases like “occupied territories” or “occupying power” because they supported the International Committee of the Red Cross’s view that the local population should have rights under the Fourth Geneva Convention.

“There are two alternatives: Using the term TERRITORIES OF THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT or TERRITORIES UNDER ISRAEL CONTROL,” he wrote. “Externally, I prefer the second option.”

Even now, the government avoids talking about occupation, instead suggesting that the West Bank is “disputed territory”.

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Post a comment