In a Lebanese Village, Civil War Scars Fade Slowly

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?3q$8k tK؟_)$_+q-SN䑊 ZgҀ3v= q3M Fʓt=+w c^w8fBt8*wqH.hFY?2F2sU,fsb( r1֍||B?s^&{6~`zWpA5\ƨ1rMx$!Qr;+W0<7mȏ88##;Ml.m-"?:WQ]iv)nU*F0G5.zXMOԴ{"bC+)'JﭮtD7IFSї$F=UrpC9X #;HR{ړI*jGoj"\D,rpÂ1#Ҵu$ދBP呏%l0 m']~uDr$쎃rXKlgJD8=3\o`bp:[\ꖁWp'ҳ~eԒD@)=yQ r1r Clz,/<5@b_)k$`5nJވ]є/K$1l,\rmҥA:so||Mj`vss? jBpuU+d< 3[x_pҽ*sGK,aC\O$ӌKLb[ɎT' Gs\^DqGkMbu={t-˺2;<`׶\a?xّQN ohFm&tˤQKٮWikKCZ.'f( ތRNw~%=*CͅՁsepj<0צ'xĥ2\+-Nգ2=- I={TQWqJ*../Uc2$1E@\zVtI4$Dew+v)1GKke g]OnҀp/Qu4*)e>\`i"=ER{km̲ƮFK u2v@8q.,;jռ'u=76W"Y'9}1ZB8*ZPKTJIP[fW`U& mI%fB>N23ېOZF}o$+ Mg̺ m*w+&b<[4sBp14RmEEbҦUS淟JdruaI=OOmONu~"~5J-Z_pbp^b7²Flgק?i. ܚ3;'n9quMk3(if_=|Sugk cVGopv {*wkS3B Ps֨]q.0%NOKEF(vZMQUMʀp=0+Ԝ4<=ލ,$W{Yr&tLIQ /+5Xuu8+pFn/@ 4y9Rkb%~J OS6PZ]5Y2)V$J-丕 68OJXuxb7e-Tuk>SXt\6z!В4 kXJ':-H\R۽IqW42HI ޡt;MA$N}=jo-KzΡQ!ŝi\6(bW83ĎMÇ;=<жSDN7 ΏK-|=J4/iFFX{fuRLh'[-g%ϟ©cCÐ$ұY&؈ 3+:m򦌵(Ghd$',$Ǻ5X#xrG?]k(#qQ$~ YWe! )$yI3w'œ֖%ē,8=?GidM w*{͋Wԩw! C*&UF ֲomXP kz ifXLe~ Z[yd%bk7z3%g݁4QʶHwf`TuI/cX0>fQ֝c }xzsjѤoU Y/+n $%Tu}pvLb*V"$]>sWn㸁b &Ϧ+RR.Vֵq.ѫ(n;*o5!Lu0#{nrxaY/$`GkɱhZM$;0\JMء^nQ}F3Ɋdq6y 1Z:-Ll>EyTEK//GDB\'LqjX:{>"D7,v lYM$Pr<̖'9>k֫Sݎ:S"iFʑm6Zk=XrvnNk*KW sҸS26R&hPMsz+Z7q2 0_ BٮBd19ې0}ֽ+i䧛!888WB/zg&(I@4cXAnk5Nf2IH*gw&9Mv=v}mOHsey $Vi ^0䁑i䷚Y'>V:E1$Vrh#/\89OmKw,Z_40ɐ>vڶCTP$ぞ䵵 Ep|ǡ#SR|F#aP{ce8&|ZYMe1VbkQ9sfd%XAZVژhDVl0Omڅl o ]I JKDWITlv>\MMRA/qHІsmb<}kGޓ'#9,v?>MTpVaXL$Z0x'dWW 1IcU9P;U?Le3Hl8aԹSqp:SҲncf5RkLۢBG\?fܰdI\vt:36uNƊ,`}osrzdҴXF$ kIxdD*? έ\ѵi%F$Kw;5n@%>f|I~.vT}+ ){t頑fA 8 0HVR2+"1_b+ t֞V;.rw:6P#ǵUR.OmLx $ӿBTYPGS5j3[]AԑykIhnM,'pr=)4^&1M&F@rWRVr0M6øސBjȵ5Xgl~G;=j;e@~nx">q TXBjm" 8s/''ul@ٸCD*d^+<7G&+otf H1:cIӭn!:UDzyn76Jto[(-AH}_7_51WbI:ҝ"08{?:ܚ5 ,39/<}ӴqIV295 E+1/נՋV퓄 UoI#sw$h 0jguY+m=W4mQ%mQ!K(&+F =Ts߯X:@kkLԅpё02)lwcՉ[%M:9Lu+Ҭ̶'ELG+ԶzbeI{cGxcZ(m m2A9ֲbd=m{bGg gOZge{mp;{Wmu6|ѶfM+JQ0Hb 8)1vm-7":X4vd)cJng$uc8>rV${T$ :dҽ= R{X՛yC "w×VA!E >Zȗ3Zюd^*$[U+, =@kN6*:\\Yܮ+myynL{̻+H|ѯ\Fl:|.Kv 3G7pjӢc:8tdN7tu C3Ir#[> ۫^0Sq^{{Y.~P^f-f$3l2:SYX3{gU/mw֍l[drIm+̎#mmŏTK$1;]+֥SЫLѪ; 3LԵym,w07lgGfcfrN˝]9]S^Cl̓p;2PPBiQp={y сe8]|7Qt-wvQ3H[CQyEa㍧F*欥v|OwEGGʍ=ƺmS6<ù[܃zL'nH$`JRO9b6nh#^'=ܑC:9Gw>Ƭ6W  rf?YD6Gᚫ-,&YylnץyW{ޟDyMܖf ?ֶlJ4(Q9>Ư.' cޭu)iY()NF& \~4

Y:un{V\7"9efJ 6q4_er~R\:by.-e1P _klaE(m̤rs_TV$owa=HonlŹ&}7&n#ہ(Vpjs.y(%Kkͱd' rS5!_8>ռb^w:oϨ6M8QTNMd_h7P+C lޗN{gs[tY^;J#K9Id# 1c?S&kڜ=G7 Iex$s׶i%>cLϔfq8hw/7.G9"hܤ؎2=5N ܏Q8Y,]nndVwqsq+W;1o#̶@+[?kJT>jdV~$lP]6}@sz.ҴdTIJ;dOֳ;=o˧o(n(3'xN*c0C(\=>*f}1L&3ݸ[I!% HQ3ˊKey3>cdR zTF*rGfh[ȥ3cݴ붳- [lŒ`3&b- HIÒT|; a<=:b8Yn_2KA5xٳ˂;w,[va=ͭVWrJrX{V-l3oysg]iL1+SE lqK{rzWo=6/>5{ϕ#气&W}I5ґq1꠶VhvrdJ}3޲lu'޷1 9?RfYXzޥ-MInLxҼW;mgJ-r)TNSw-VoCwR% cKqE+]nhpT'ֶcFk+y8ϗZI/Itֵ%үmnnu%fwT[iWr>mj+{׋ˎa j&w5#"6zwh2І=G5< ɑ'_{‘ Nr+Ke5PF^As۲pֆvmB`h7gڱ/ NgOl޴22秶857sFNn28jΜ5c=ARDp۞+^[Io:5 ؚgo&;[\V]6Ȧut9ܭmGJV'$h Tzp?psg^wu-c֟.8Ҡӻaní*݃cegX'kך:B9+:K{eh^i6oiQmx|ۜ XY T|'YH`%PҴmf3ּ|- qڕȓ[h$r3lan_Mu0 [T6}:ן#}Q]c0^`g]sl%x9`kЧ+ݝPw+i]srN cMu oZǖ[b.Jg ~J،ekzߴ#Yd= 籬KD_urЈw9uxg{KeVUz`ht|հgsS篵*K%$U6vXd,HY=6kQH,jV7!<)'G̪;c|W۷jͼkY¾EuN Axhˊk+2GSʙkDXC~\԰.HGչbe@ *KoR C:E!$#U/\F16 /i 1m,"5m@;++M-EI:7H"?cGw0(9R(U#,zsm C$s~x~- $W]%sVՍ٣&K*hc$g=ǯJ`-DsGE_5"< ; FA>:Ӯt!p̡d! n5\&#Fh$pK["@́ {uߥafc9;ݵ[[tR٣8#<kGVjŇpIsy?o"*qN?:ϴo񍥏bTQRNV׿ТfrLl0鷞*W3yH25n6⯔jLQ{k2Fq([k>9Ws᛻BG 8W!bg޺M;HY-7m"9DZzMVo\$ (#mmcDg`P>Xh!yZ;HݹVӥW$mkbդRjO1/Ĵ?9j#*FyY Aoe c4Ml+yQ-<ƾu]DDqZn5dz ᴫ6-pq[ڦ~3v3Өܪ^GZ#q(8{Umy,㌭5cn \uxp9:Z2܏12sOzT*n6 kv̺V]Pxj'v%,.rִ'aq$.J9Q,IBIJꌓ! suzW1( ]^2C-F3F;zEΡ%,VARx3֥n;0 g9R+{5tIm1F 0BF#3$u 68n$7dN[ e4bG6:dt85̦pWbUǂOj!E*yA,x z@+Q!2HI$#^cNb0tڜZ\n O+]\̹JjPiK%7@k*!#R2sZg'PF2{%j-ĐFv$Q3,֖Id=+hRrQCnb{ mˬqFuk5eᄅzr9\⭕/2 RQH޶ q+~նDL3TXR$M: RFKKϖcnxڦ.v܄R!I@\p>*4d 6Uj)&f(âB>y`m cBZ _b +# ܾx.1׊۸e0M0U3ۀr4"B.3h/of@yGLS2~e&[yn$8ȅ VPң6XPFGs]21bH#mǮ4su$דr3Q')Ӻ<%pG$Ay/nz՗ÖA U4d7gէ8Bm2pWP`,q\=J{kG;9\,"z2:6JcyH]XOr[,Yw hMoq$KU 2 〛݉C8y]R@sM}K$;[#W|8!Tgvz*npN[z}%2$gqT*t)[JZVz[Gth"kxߒ2~_op=*_mƜn%FZ Bk3x,vd A\ԷRTwPs@uk~dd"׶oɠFr@ ˎW/k_M[-Rī⤶$?,30Cn"QSwZXCtu(md.I#$ze+ki+@^Fkɽڤkѷ`JޝsДQS73vIs\T޴4/LuBš\nf݈ cOj#ǩ c>xn,s4 ?CV+̑nے9 ՛)ڒK)}}cA<Zd̵f.nI#^61MP-epe T06Nߝoʁ|UI"ܑ`G#uBvEh7)rX|Ǝh5+U oNR".v8L /PHQeJ?D7$+c㡭MQHP $҈0HpE\[U<$oZSniuM**Ʈ61Q\dsלtաGp# .I'q<N6'WYZvUN2ċrJv5hzu.$a+y.+_CΠ#?޺"h`-Vs!pۉn]9:^Lm?((T8%I#F/eP6ɴRLw颱{Zt>~3dxm!Vk%g#*U\4濫tPV? x~Mlېzj-ԝ`DI4HaxڻjMEjjf'&K6tV2Eɴѿ:@q:> }XG9Ұ|6堝0DymR>cx9?ɓshpK:Yg8Z]^N$zOzR\sn9udPc'/&P#`- 2K fi('Z@1p54j{|R+feElc#n֖p `G5K+VmL l75R-gbFz#LKU8WKλKخV)"$\Gǿ5RTÄ [xDk"Ļ lUXj@&k^=̞cnp  g$jsE<"PyڭOz-Xޱ!1*zzqRggo<7̻Σ8'pN?:,vd|-ҢI:Kq:>?rrznkjRm7\Odڧ Nrq}1YpkK&Pydeݗ) ^om\㞕$YCܞ(RwgwirTgS+f\ oɵTcʧ$8@w71 /ҸgGӽ IaNj]ZGk4#1di2[dcdFݼv×L bWFۏOW8왡8Րjmo9C \[ƒ% !r2==Py#"Mjւ4~Hp>S1ƭe T"Dд @6{;$$8wqRcm!qà S ȫ!`謒) u4-JyqPjT;r~jh8n xL$2jQ;TSmqu-V\Fhm>l㼁Ajp>idzjJ!߀0*Ζr}MͰ2GaY6æm\3`F?U^ Ĥmсx*T];n0֖nVlk m\qݑx!p:3]qKse܆Bݸ[O63Jʑ඗O-Þ?*xO~HcXO͆?\riiڻ*Z46㻽f0Hrz_Jη46Hv>Ukwwk`F 0ʬV[rSkOVQHgB@`z롰-|g$T%Rx?/^1~i5<0myn=*PBxG]ռ,maPn{1zUm_wzS &g %:Zīxk)u  &8Q:d!ԯ/Zu4{#}ҵqi3*,~c}BH'EM-%PڑŽ8qY kY]]\-("Aרe}G[JGOq'$vi*,J'?z4s>ǵtQ-AA]χ~dyu[cf;Tgᧂťv 4<*l+#˖;[viFwDlT,WlrpsUn# ꠜ"ZmY6`9[ih @ +d(~n2ڃ!={pI8>ժæ-zUX }Gj]rG3XWIԨ2n 5Xe4*U3٬@=FXTGg)8yuޫj$<@Fd yCAњk!nY7'Wrq;5qT_GNOc;3H ?1'5$ 8ZiVr2<Uk^6}WQu'µB ,5E`Lh M#ɾWFZ01Z]+)\%3m!U 7!OQAt0UNF{v~BH.#vs޲؀9j!Kܐz=+92sRvȋjE9?>*HH)x_ɸۅ = #RXorN#ӯJ)>`Ҥ+43G2I2OqBF $I5ԼșWR@PB{Pa"Vj$g+{^OMV(CtIO\wi,xn*+Q,|2 E0O%WJwK=?T`ĆTUA@ܧ8C"KLok!B+w՗cmą=Ahɵ{VI!9Hk8v0etqU]!2/ txm&RdTcrzcPCiWd<FPṑX*H*ʽ ӓ\mஞ _CCKΟ38X^:׌U r$\8Þ6@1UV{bKɦWCgp F> ݻΟ]\2,ʹ`댞zr;T :G|*ʲ8fdugy*;V4ӥ'lzTf$yaH<>)S4ެ6Efmc."U*׮OTWM7 D1N[o1m1e2%Jj>UDa(J\V ٍRWXy/pwqm.2Cɱ%XUU'}5I53ıԔoDIh~UZZ9>vl,0 h[^Kha@zYy~uq%%#̤H0=u!o5]>Ao| "[Oi4?ro;s'_Zk%X1y 44$mYjʗa[w1qjX|)f[<I¶ҪAjXhp KIq9*ub}:l*zj-۽tMհ8'5Y]K#v8P%N7>Q 5;:Ҟ?*9{g9?jwol;O>Bk2:4$9|:Q:f%d36x.ݖ0;|qZXd*ǥuõe4IO8=ֹo ?x#hkZR w2ܮfE\ѥyfxд@C6zN3YS|migib +4tI!d-;$y95g&Xg6+Os(H10s'jt{cwvbҶHmՆkys.=s5kmoIJ rsʶ.-]ꓛ_.2ID2' wǮ:V][=$/>^w=Aa5͍ͧJA Ź ?Z[ܔss%ysk. aL>Ajo'9"-O1ݑ- %Cq$RdI1V{Lat;J+MH۬~؁$BNbC+Z=hVS9daJf?ϩxig6n̞lٯsдӬʂ6Q}+tش3;A{2A<(n1ATMNJ7A8ǩ Vir{$S?ʵRU2#o6q?m7t87*ȩd3N;ݶNf FI W)#kj׽>[ɢRa,F?iXwڹ& Q{mij Co'UzPPZyhѾQӊdO?Jٶ`ZAk'5h-BKZVbDA4q"c'𬋋dXjDhLj~aHorEkszd)tPm ǿ;KdA$G7$HukC._cTQH2dUkws>ԂY@&MpvnjzӅ;IQ7YXAo 1) 溋YnUW`Yw ֽH !h% gGOzM"6:v؆@V?$V9՚wP85^-S8ֵ akWchDŽV'Pgc:cqBN+49G#aL.Z]Qқj”<UQ.zd~Vn: R] MAʱ-K[HZ(?x$Y: {yO64|bmjQZ64sʀYZ"?wmq*<ڟ@`A/|Wb8q^>kl(Hd`+,V/ut'm  榺+__m(:|ag&#I, v>5Ԯ SXY"p8J^̳j&Ӳr +QE4N6̬aK* \xߜcw\kYΝZF7m^I;jz Z^iRR=[wӯܝǎS7s*>U12A3qЊRKȍA?3=iȍ;vg_ֳN̦VYr"(O#"-'A^7d UY`N9N֚U>֥M+RTڲ`)@_RXckQxV[ DNB>Y95m&Uf:$#yS2)<7VO뚊ÈŒgY$u[~޴UV^A]4W(#=L*{aP VuxA\v4=jҴGcBv4ݓI@fD<"ֶ\B!]Ẋ4K N@?ObGx8u?5gi'$UֶEC#c(Q ?/f FeVT#9OO|y Qj[IǛ2TSHSYR +sFɃ:sΩ=%f88$9RL~s8|l3{aJOSI{jw}RkR0ұf =jcOnkI!x;J=+,|?a%۱P׽mDZXm=[=+DL#.ŗpqÊ>mwpaWXPB\-Ygc1cqMU֯(_/OdV6M(!Lx8޴-xxKX>Imh:{ \/ sa9]hs(&fix`Pj MFID{p:ku,wV]3ݏХTq*\mp{sһ9hҽiJ־DVvOAӞVw>\v#i)b28=+veݳ+6 ,gr>h[kTCmg$6GK-ƤFB:7m`R38PY"yr"b?ؚ^I9ܣAJ;OOG@H7| 玸yo U73 #/[omY?&#>{#NIɦ1iq1j80,'zWէpd`\',Y s;d܀F!u9L ?C4Lt^^a|Uŭ1jp/l3П`k֘%T oj˹~"vw2a-r7 OxMyժS~xyF<9M7UG7a'nQLV,l˥2ܫjd8vE6]3Zt;w[D! BPy\@d#M9v׵x5((7qf,T0ЃFqٔh' }}q} n7$iqi,WQ|`{Me{ěv![ (k&>Nw vU WPխ5%t osoŲ,ېGENnO>vѡ[Bu[>xYF0ұ5[\@NO5|[C>,DB|==9&H+ 5úG5b"̄y9@BS-v s4aaoHxrGm|Y?ֽ*44w_Ygν'ƥۓ!Q. 8j$SrX a9{E֤ZVyGFsF.WbKVLW l>yfb{X/,{WzQdN21A7{ׂAէ2Dcs<{GU{5geڣUU9sڦ2,gsڙs̻0$gU%HYܘEݪ( Ozl|Op+8΄mhROB-oc+5|YO Su(fy繞I0$fbwc֨jN[ F ްߘ"i' A4]V wlmpA1]Ž΋iPOcyڅ)KckȴHE{|dzֽ}OMAr8?:"Z+!%ⶐ1_J[k2C\jZfnߤfqLtv=qŬO$d3:ΔF1ciVMbɖݛ\G !=+'!fnJŭ5;ۅڊXy%x 8+/kՉouy):m֝fֺ̓2^Cl<$'dkZe 7EXԂcsӏJƝys9 h֐ַ0K"L>LלWk]٪ɱKt;8p/³3ud? Vq+;\JF\޵֢8>f´ Dqȧ=z*y`~UbWabٗ_! s|+cv?)%֚'8<^d *+2?3kB>#fҸSxϿָ{%S/vU<2O7:"rk7gF*ʮPTt{'69=zG\VH6lD2bEM[7mlLp2}URz$[SVVsskso,TNψ#mDe ٗz׍mw@,;4LBuld'5rsy ZHOq׭t &cF'~Hs+ި+[K$I:θdKpeRrjڝvDPT ֯ Wc,uVl}=AJR/uc2s"ڰ ;٭;Km99ָ7Rk{ (񁻟ka \jhw}OUx39< *Ҷ|]ǃ/P黕m,2?COuV*t"F@!CVikr#G?qjԡ!V]@qcִ?z9ڡdB$PWކ0"*Aj6ǜDz}:V[3nII·E3ZR3i}IfHU5:%ĺtw-lsaI*{8=Nm*wN~4x ԡ@Ȩ6 C< |q'-g` sYZ֗Yn&D3ϡ*[8k%2}SG2EyvOYo6f\/dı yp;ֲܝx=+^Ef]{%wK#; [?r8@X( VIȐE *[cVm#M{ep%G5BYaEX6zM[H.X2g~y Gpi8"HZggBn!OpH䞽k[F,4Rbdy9$ 麪yA &RH?Zjpl'ek텵&#SU&Vk&-pFpfzU>',2-r=Gl{TP ѣi%Q ~F{s݇F FX7r[4*D"b)8UXKs{`qiEq#I!+HpeGCװI!d kH-,|eOzԬGۮBch $ǔZR;3eơҪQ%6K.kpd$,A3k7j*DI*ѐJW/ h Xna?oJ-?h3nXWCBynЖɂ>Ee3rZM@т.-8a Eylks;-BN]1|N"^4=WjWMq8IK~,MV`X>X9^]|Kz:RhfU< CvRiЩuF_cε#ozRXOU{o\%O'Y"e0s} aIC=enZMtcǗ7ix;NH/7 r[G`Ao,?jK|A՟ןnUe(<{Rol$8Zcǧe%6! =>=nmg_)C!OR?F)lcE,Ϳn9 ȨWĉj7Z\DYD: q?hhӾ˩0LɄ9oö}뛆"L>unVnTXx1'rФh@c sGz!wEVB^;}=imvGV$ݸ=TcyV d,۶*};ո.me3dnTmV ꇨ^7,Npv-3͓ӧeICS@ZRbg\p| '~S\ǫc 壻˴Pm2g5.I(RFv*s9kN9;m :'P6 =tZ›m:FDB{gAZۅv,p?*ϝ5ts+\47[K@$d|f$h9w\n*Ks۝6EJa{*ţeF$#_+?f!&eGFr:c֗O[{wǢʊv1%:sVtUZ+z)yx̧ rADWDw  %S隭i-ܳnA(fKSMc2񏗧Ҡȟʼn$=lf*UIݮDos~8] G>~Dv7 ݂v(SEPK\]Kr8Fy I' WW0#-K: &ֆ%`\{g<`V,>3 ĒÜ"O|N.*[BHsWQ\0l2tOF=s[چёX+=c2%%;Tdu&bxmt u^c^ՀRսڽ+(#Q* ̆.Hʂ97FW=or5.1G" QzMr4%ͭ; 互{֬օ&K[s@Of7yLw.{j_)J,=SXҎR1c}>v:=6>?Yc$1`K0}ͳ_[pYLϭjZfxl\[JRH]#qֵ!g!XH =;yc5˸f;E=IR[(V+w̖qّYEg|pzeķ24Kmsx iH>h+rAjI @C\h++*?E݋$c1\'NY/#p?ksN{k8F1+)RSjuq[Su!' mknY(b ܓ&@VDFɷP(n.!XT00ÂHԶkJq.MOYͤĹ\1׏ʵlp !eccEݱoŊͦ`5ax3Hoc.J!^e.y٢bdbXF8?SVM/CɌgs2m y֪Z"׋ͽ;qښE.rP 0F;{JM lv=YtsZLv`KU1s2bLfۜ:zUf+}xd1~oZ:݉bGUpzrG3W[1u}2qUR 9#IFff{qṾbTuw7Zn QRp~=kկEmD*eO[zTr}:[0;&=ՓlnG29gGBұ2ȧ# k2j31ǯMFnv'~?O,s5/i?k%X{ z(GrK WyFҹiϵY)_DցPҥ A54/rYY]8>_&X[9_zzGm4sWqʟ2zVüգo'X[8,ƣ4K!uݸý wn1'S앖O$n@5zZΛ1" 6u~!`l^I)c1zbRäqr$3pE`xZXUt,˷89׵w$Pr'WZl;5KCp/>zJ{H1`w=NG_]KƊFv-dzUuk znӽ7p[xᕫFFEci&P=}]mbu0uWgPVT( '".IEo-̎ZbI[\xPs{kN#ɧ(diU][Dfެ T:u+g4rGV ŴІVd}c*WE0Q{i^QШţ`Oc>/#ԎUL(qzҴHyhsէM&AjLxp~淭DĀd5[Akgc4#$^Iax6#J劣 bb[}]+; zHp!_^eT"d {jg1ll^#Mi$;DXcEKܕg`$;,c=%b ЩW"Y8PA=I4ILQ=rjHM,O  +BEܨO9Q޽_UBq:Gg@r\{؀)bch؜UoCÖs!Q2z.>ZxBa)w?ֵm x;.:nM4q7>tx qm2Fs?&4xYۓ`΅:6mJ^+cjšqωVr_X^_\L˪yu,2pqz[:Cx( kit|^1%sJ| CW^XI'U5–5L|ɮZ*18>A^S-OǨ5GSTJ|-5,&QvV8dx s}nְ7ނ&4ah3HzsJ2Qi5cQSٹvۃMfBQlcEz{iv >kcl*._e1iVhS]6[Z'Cu#3Qz"9D|>on ˂vQMs*UtւKb00#>4rq{6Ȋ9 (=xtf17.2x \Q m?8'cA+[CO5Pdc'#sY^ةE닅5yfA-?t3N.݄(B1Y#B;fb*+ȹqj lāFE]G*qDU2H8ힿY}v8BUQwGN^J>-ʞL /p2HAKr@>ap9jQ|c3[{8d_K5֥q*.ysjZkS DH VJ;9zZ\O"G+\=(jg5 gsr$`Uz!o$,O+}ϠsKos$w1Oƴ'V~?6o\I ><إ0/aJ5iF;#ݻd˵i`kgh}2bDK]U.4p~eXU$Uze@9?VjV iv)56_l㡩cn 玊zt£9[A$ic_:yރ_ jk:[1g$@J[Գx8gQ^{xb:XdRрl^e\<)K;^dg|B[A*@g>Ai@[hD5 "&`qJtt%p[;M^CI7nLRrrwg#Fu-\ =FҢ+7p ƷѬ.5N@p?.q^jg=<#yb:Eu?;M,3q\ç6ٟ% o @^i- Z#y#jc1Ȃ3\JF[ Bz5UiRP o.E<)5ב_Q_. ;b0ѩH=pGsΥ;/̶P2 Q7M2 &LR 98#]UG+_jӵ"l+/2Zv2#<+ ¶7wlaۡǷZ;qv"zS _/1_xRNqvZ'+6S/{<"i]V.wrA^godȈyEO89o:LBf"fEIJt%qiOhxφ&)O=ʆ؊K~*rrpTFV[ ¶FK-Me?OdMϼ62kEknd,^l4 Q{8qW_Oɠ_k ^t|DFn,-f]bbt A8v[yo|x.(5/:M 11!OBá?^>bƾ\HtR 9ٞOc^_as5G#d84q` B䙞L|ǠY=QFbhl+1䎣?? ]CEnM@'_\;H g+\{vZMVH O{i: ˲8> W2iI4i?6^a=:9UxLPsp+ʍP[!35I>SzJ}!Op LNBoxEWpZOi-XxʜZm)G̷?FFjZM~/= '8w~uv?:á%B~V|8%Nk!s̮t4~v=O>Pf(D皳~X7HO?a\|D34w^Ȍ;Ҽw&5F8<h?Q$-c%-Pψ/Gsd`;U{{'wr6US+ǴSk)J콍Sǥzo Ty&*| Ȍ4a=GzR C)M\ pQQl;qLW6 bR2~c)#0Ȥ)ҹ%n?°i7K,r#H4(մ# #ԁֵ,j5q W(9U&WoEmAz+WEsJ[;ĮAx)3 ϓ ? p#s9n;XBH'Oʣqu)\G IOliFZdX\3lI,BۃNG8ˆ7FcVΈ6w>1Eaz|F6;zV 5ld7 FP8>ֱ'/w68ċdVw FQq S;+9acB |sF>$9d@MV{de$V$fbNevWߴ(pC"oO56{hU JCH9\T[|m;+yCju6e< }1&V`lap cPnO8SyMV#zdp `t#`BYT G"޴C0*~5ܡ CtopzGl<ӵs-;\gk85'c] CM7+o[Q橂2̧l`;tՋ{yl 1M!F;!|붺R1l`\S?!t{yq)q:uxqN9N^i |<uRʪ#?!NUih*9^VGΩ1F~dDJ1ڡYx_ִVr#ߊ͑stgA["]O/q<>sǛڞgOMOJq]3ExdJiBΌgskuƠ&DDgo/^+Z547oC֡)w̄ϔK \siJA:1>VxFyjH>Y ?Uh"mBgK@B(9y*yjKf-F`O3v!+nxbl8 2эλU׮&m;TN msA vS:C=jW&;23kWU_Zx}[Nވ.c S4J,߻8q~m$%L*߼ztkP Rxz5eT1# ӥzLE1G?yZ-KDe ڼ.KV!I"G'V#8dy wz֍4C$ 3K7 7O :qJ3Wg Wu{h<(:uФͨ*0ܤ9ׇ7 "E+B?½:f۶}zkrΟ<8ϕ-5>fVk 1Rz+wMMbjD縷 |Ie9 U޿ۧV57bǞ{W֑5R%|ޱzu#NvQ9WjMyKVwMw)i>?OũQѶ+gb/ĉwu#\\]v)=Ϳد'A~tON9ѦJZWڎ=g{q«"_i+r ikPG& QiW$v6aXdJ̎3Њ%=5sc- 4J_znx:[/q@[nuxny3j_FOxKK :z% vOK?hs^kO(D=v[ k|;*FXO:zZVdC]X$Y}NjUMF84-Q "Q^-γzhz``~u_c^(}3E?kpZa"Y,O=IMyUe͢:Ҳ*x:dgQbyF{?κCK88U\'4ڕ&k.r5_WBܒ\A'W0PQ~ֳN])]>)~"'$G*,z?Wq 0]y.:yé:tliAQ)V]r$DJDB- 1O_ҽ]Ն`ңbyW;{ZBmT$gxY1fg2mÜ}^W=Orrs֏o8','|NO&h) 6ΨEht4-oaq߰K{Ljyje&l99"?wWq]x~Cb/+"\V-gDHFP \O,ghi@{i[R$HL#͂z(. Q )mAOJr(ɬ'^0+\w).:kļY6\o,Fϯ^-Z]?AJm˯ ʓݵUVƠ܂yq.~Pϔb #?8WZ/7 -D2*@S#V[~6_!6{r:!S[Gin,>9#<=V\@zA.o6tXaV2[zמ*ei]s eK^Fk2k'qrgidȫnX[t;fQ> ]>Y6M 7FxJR P<*J8H%W HLNpzV =EtK5 jJLs7+F(.2<UYPNxL~x| /#XuQ͡zy} vuX-y ^ 2:ry9+IQsy Cֽᮛ4klRGn ~.LՓhuzs $QVoרBI4ĶhO4n$^/R/>54k5)d5췛^`֛]Ǘ@UWo,Z-Β_-v8XNk$2!RG_:MER!m+[O51 ^B0#3O '-+X(#{nJ=7إq ٭}WLI-n  r$RDOM1IhoD_ߡ_O~uȌ@ck~#_Exkb~qa䞠Rk$XcVH(cFpzw90>V~V톫k,YMigӑ\!\AGz)8V qQd׻-Q50tFY-AqOq[ `+9D6a5}2GlXv8<<K4GBvղuGN*Ut9Eshs @uUtInV8 X8.YEʸb=85Ŷ: ,^C;.`ZõRU^_Cb!Ucb]ge.a-Y!p}򧿚JIcG<\Ѯ>V Q^/OJ=m-Ll&wn'vǿ* qqȉ"7`k|M, h- }dƹ-NVw'?1+wCy& (k:GϘܐyr#z9$kVYu*(㌶3 Oq*M$6p+] FA,ܧЃDi'vs ލ]3OsA\氰\@&IxlQ5m72Z-v JBMh jt6*  jN4Pdv\- w鷦}luvv>-ŕK,)t8\1x-vR`q9Rq :$8 A7_CkzTS'-*Jm 0fm( -y<$fwH5\K7LFfqim]Y P<1Ϸ>iD4&#y=9A6fé 4yzc_OZ|G5rbcs~VJIߡZi+Yag뷩npy*},TԠ <V,5t7\m2&݄%@'{nUqǘOJean^4gAUV*J® Ԥ]Bixw6H89rwcO FsXH/̎9E6~apQ܅fܷRČj5#Pa3Y˽p g^Rk aKV[B{bq'gV$MvivmczW3i<ɢRʎeܣ}>51{meG:lv>jt.CVaR]F, -W\vFec\M奁--'dĎ 'Z-F$sZ &7TvίN_ԓ_L5ƥ<3tXnbWS zE[CU)e]zxteX| ӃۭGr+I'sSЁy9*9r`g̓xk|.#`X('*CYʴ-xhԧ7+zUHSKIX~$]ŶVp789PXkϼk4ᒾ7a2|W$nx-kMd!JMpz8=*)&oSiyk:_93FCЪ 3Rofa#Au]kys½*u{bę;@کxz̙q~"m3BGc]+&JЉ7w,sD2'W6\Aٽ.Ht\f3؊ԁT=+/!x<ҽЏRArͣr'޺F5xf[k19os]Jd0~`2MiedCZK}J6\[\\/GqZI%zUY=>g&e+SO ZV %i {[tg~*g^+.UFHfI򤽝Mm&B+*uJm$2j!̳lCNnm`d?"|c#>W|k\S֖GRp dz]3$k9KF|G`R>?ZZ.0RS/mwn(un˙Xƍ5!64bv2j2޼jIi2܎LԳ>v%.ؠ}p:zNTv2,R(54!N4Lv*kܪvDFL\Wr$ݯJC8[g?#`FTºPjd 19RE(G$}iFvN)"5'j> 3ɸt#pf<2'r1#b'G 6/?Mqv|MhpR%ݣ(1N1^mЉqpJđv5E[b" =?\W@#k G]G{lAhhzO*>8? ~v}Ibs'71Y]\?џۉYg;~?bƎf؏¸=g-0=+M"M[S&kC~F>k*s2#5ڬֺe褆A=r: _%dQT?ƪEG#ϮSIHaFad<{dJƟN,bZ^ ryI4-+X+hh{npYNGص(~;|gkD_}#for4"=k `?;cHL=庈H@#[gnĂjqPV $_Ok:cȲeԱ?Su,2zi Q-b*ڴ`ជdur]1 s=kx`rA2_qtVyadV!TCYI:Ind֦Kk+A8s&؎g{Ahۀ 3kM$IcB *iyRSBH皺w;+j§[=|.m6=:vʑy`#r2rI9co0Y]&\ӶHD £6Z:"U3tYa_+/ &2[$Hr٬-Q-V񧕔.[ۥtSocTΉ)-KF1#3(О}.ݶѴ)8zW*ֳ ow*279 Z*b97`vu#Lӝo_H遞)iFO1g3>Yqk^-<c^y= 5`ӹi>{n]$.n!\Kq ̯Xٺu\RH7R& N{xԀ uY=l4 f3#]*l䰾n(%1Re7$OrOo-1׃\?J *$`<ݯ:]ZG# U’ڸZ! 6qƴpK3/a@HgI",8e8 črU-Ҭhj0چU>RfҠ0mbä n{V RHM>C2(>ޢê0q5ёn_\PE\IL^HaG m"@wԚK[lYNxBЫV:}>y!?NF5R_Vռ/JobyWSoN(i#jX^&rǚQHXӛʻRWӊQ6\t~Ťw?="zSD$+<<ѧ9% =?}šEC|z|1XfPW%ZICc熠Dȫ9?R32aq}k|[e)lL]%~g|w\~UF(mCS^E x5NaHP̬~ gAǶ9%wk 4k{<\}Ha\#ЃppMkҨǚ[hϛ7\걶=JŸRrU :Z)s16ahW^աUv?#Yw4]"/b[ѷ/gw?{Io?uI彝58o3Owm5ٗ RC~n'Q2;1mz_<)=+rě2UL$GcD;lfz6;ʣ8KWmpeWEiIaZ- viLr1~ =kYu -ay#\<{8r[ lV%sŹyY$@ҡs'}c]̻=qv3jˉ }$0>^+=Yadm8b $͸r3Y8v3Z= +M^YK0=>]{x BiL rr3sQܘD2*E*?,1LkFeampN&F G*i^iR[,f7TX?xzdK&9I =?ϭTu[噕.$fYNs1f=o4acHW.<>R~vM|GwjdڻUrprGinUj.[y89^={zՏ9n^ivH2 r}8Z֗io@x&w2J?R~dٮ˦$C~:jd('@PYO0SC+I{"MB;ێt5H*'%'ury]YiX[MpcBA@2NHqx[euۢpT}z۞]xxHW?z9_9qߨWR{ml(ߗZ"Vz25EC$֧@V, lNzѴ KgMr"N?MXm#"ibqZW{4Hc5Q[{e($7H$29bmu|n($i]QGbAUPԋI?ٟaN:$`9,dImrWyd ]ܽaS>1[øjӻ e,99 ȯ剙"0Ξo\d|+s8`w_nM,H[1 }9Хo9酭#P4Kډ !O)8 .Erx銵u+[߲imlJ$qJ& .sbN%H?Ҽ\Ewq! ;zҮ$ѷ6ܦ}6W ܟ~j1SURO+]CLw,ހ宕rw!cw&-{L0}?#Zff{#-tkEmyn2}.{>syw+4]$[@"xlOn69G]揭׶C L~|c 8;ԃ 35tGX$@$X)|Ltׂ*cyQ cZӿ>[8np BV ?*YE X}q3s˜ՖDx\y$Ekgpp'%h)|Um{MBud0Op}ȧ^"0VCbWFjKfHub`Ce0z׆IkoWu. F۱OMV֬lNNՎﶟ&4F*Iw_ y-`,4#l0Sawqdlm=A2s@ftDHRI_lQH<ǧ򩮮 "[̙ɋw;x6Cvga8)ۏl~Gگ Xެ^ey$c lcv>*($zV,v zvX*h&H-,jn9_j@nj:S$a~`{\UR-YA}87xKi)M]3BA5NN-nq֟ȑ);O+>neq)%}ryN= V7dxe R{Iʞ%*8oJ~(Dzs4ΓN%VYJJ2yqs՛P;C78;LC5Qy&-5 u 0ҹ}y2Ս=Mkf;+nEs'zHSYxP<3mgfjx$o8s🈣NU|ƊXp1S]|Sk}V+,tk.%Lkc}4`i⽺6^/+WN-Fd#R~\X 7^xk\u8 =}Sѡ*p#%뚣u\Z:@^ާ+nnwHT@rOv֨GRD YnR+Eߴ$g#8JոJFSdu KUky$m@>I1bz Mrj*8IAyx#*JC ( m-%3ST@m'|rTU݀jڭܷJ=bWdb$z5U$r$N_އ3]ݸԟJ5?]Z]:ʸG[#1A@Mm!P`prj`xc[1:EԕL`gHs jdž☋=5 8QQ86`  ߵ*MIcޓQ+M)]m ?Z7ڕcۜVfwop?u$ _NkOj' yj7YsP5MDn OSI,}]Ԗ2>VY~=[!n0ZohJ8jYmtsH8\!"4M #g>b RѲ))lޔ r=:)K .;w>S\O>0|avcLsGr_$dj`#~@YVk>`Lg tNk]͟K`I 9b9-z߅mB)cŒ׈足a( 4|N?>%۳YhזG(8t4KV=~\nyTWŸCo8?-|,NxI~S(?NPڻz 7Q?3qЫWڽ4֭0+b ^/{ѥ|o^wo!{TO2A z1߭ & M{/5(/p(Y __S,HȠE} ĺ<>T f_0ӥb}A\tv\?= Uo4/kĢt͔Q#A~TmMb|/|Oca8o"I9]~^%ׇ۠S f_á?*Fuxxɡ$mg8zҶ0&d?ҰφQ2C0mz0\u Oo/yx-CL?_)xfMPl|AV8 OE[Y#d}ip-.i'S8? Ճĺj`/AsXј0$?Csn! זqOSn^oﭮ/%{|c]Y幸ɒ@G= X6m< ;"i %9 ҳ%Օ+[ia0>H[) Y7>'#SFelc9]Y\u%(uF V{ܷa"BWaD Ff&G&p~kSy qqT.qG(=1ְהM7 r9u.4 #qjͥv,V8-+*rұc1]c̷vi!=M I+ǹiX󎆪\rG;KN&"s=堑ˁSz棰yasFc>we|yk{;ؤIЂCƖ⟅.'[Q"F?u;fud2#6dSe'b~kGXwLXc4Y4幼bBɐ8!)r)u-QHK#9?[0r`GqGCk dk })sc F'yNݫB:]M`eH5ggXSg{-Uw0JP$`+r=!'K 2HFp=*՝HCpR;.=ql@%^1֩{Y/!71GqC|skgtfzEpL(]A?Zgfm0h0Snbw jYd:Z}w?"F3zW:4ھ$ 3/99|:~u,8b=kg2d`oN¦w{݌s(|@@OMҳBc^kJ٣k[hF1֙1{Ue=3!9+j@AU³$$\ETQp:PsTOy@`Qj@\ ~KE I Q+aئ T1(jVw5 @j[|jVf2*SڑX㩪04U:`Y[C4DF`r2A=ꍣo$:[w WFfc ZAAP+l:geb申P%H7Ҳ|Gr '8;ǙO% hBV*D]C7$JH5gU6O-0pA~5^kY3ZwIX{ E>dpdqZt vL6.z”ͣZ롁c2bJF0=[M{hFN}}}G_<6 t8rȷpmsPH2.B8$d}*Tb=I/I8Qqmmⶺ1N؍| g9ꈹ7mI9c=q׏z314n #nNzV5fn0ĒͪFIP*`N+z 6"!~U3Zr>7?s$aۑלk,8 Jđ^<=s';l-l{"uX98qߜEgSF$Hfpd{PMƤ޼Ŭ{\'}GԚA}KNuWFG<=+_K/_ шO5߽uL_ks2gʎĹ483nH1#|㩯Uxᗃocc3IIp$J=+eF{^^'=/B{{HDq Z=I p=vo] sJҀFDo0c#?+h/Atf>?u&]E&x.Jrv`~_>x#[KoK(h$k;$<=6q7LW瞼U4\i?3$cº]7Y<VB&T[;j̛#dI X$;/_ L,uʹly'ץb\-VYMCݪu_ZSRV.JGks`Ʋ+7$0w{l!h!e?ֿ R[q}FG3b]A uIltڢغ<^VQ>ֽ$p+k_:01$d Wgs+\oIfXI!&:2pjחPnXv%~՟M`(SI bvܬpJHբ*]jIKDhnH!bCmCms$2 `Ut+.ܸf+{zVMRĢHd#{cS}M=ݛGw&ץA4c',Ǯ}+RZܓ*IT`'Iifmm} dAAI()62!㚞6IR8+бl"nHL9*+}L9`®#"QOaV|M1܌9)jni7@E$1cU 팏9>l֎"?6yʐN*g jGڬ4[RYn zcY=RGq_*"q@jec߀gSΑyG rɅ|` b4{kBXLg+tZPTaҠ/+*HvM sMTŨ.\xH]#ݱn?&c#ѵRϴ?M@KyG ?kx4tsԣ`JŻb{oXR?M iPuG[ /k+DPGO[O XmwR!+I:8@J:mj,JnK{R<L_Z%15.,M2"W&kΊyV-6ry=k ģ_Yi;|JaIcAO Sv_ת|lk|ǽ#z/ yPr*m7DF`HG3:F-jxm :{NZ|X¬#RXPv;֬FxPn\#k6x n'q ~3*_(&X)N?=5Qm_;9U󥲹WYvs{WxRDʀC摷<vu@qï@** -#|.mn=GoynNhPEcg$qV`^}qS s?Zfp,X09QM5.P4,!NOzdxb6|ΰI<Ȉ=oiI˚R̚ehi?7=j|U{Ghwbi6 pqk Ԯ,5 ءr1q֮躌^mynffC4#8#@55A4'ײQ Mb\#:5 sҒv"t7SF*ЊbS?#gժ>S*x"8NRZCC?JF`gGq  >SQ],"p adU*nzڪ# NJ;{fLi@*>㩶F-=ܒO۫tKd9j^- VF6UxK=OO3b0gID^#[Ĵn7ݹe{?ʥV;B*m"\0Kc$9HKBűPoP &cd1'lnN=˄cr2)w3M/ FcOTIǭS1w TwʾzНh}*֟av%+'y#)7>]Y\0}+\2"玘A"}ʹ]Lb9~VZeOF@&k#KmN2(ŲH<ƒ ?Jf$mX$K#"$xesI4Yİ ox>~c5%gs,!E=85$|>JZ>&-n$GgXo o>XFAM9 X%͆:nV_Ρi"d밶{M08~WtSKLu>kT$q;_+lwџW=Qxj2۶ W3.JmWPLiڕuy.m\xQV'E1Yw6qkrc6~Th ZGü~<̝3So6xs+kSIp6 SKa_q vk$-yqlqE d.?2ERZmͼEOybC$QFr8ҩ.¹jE"orH?yK{V k.1jXE#+纒[LݏrNI6;Jr8s*L᳝]f$@=+'Uk_)N@fIUw:w9:QҊ+S;uPbHh %-MQ>%_<_XVDB㜰U׬Yܽ~'TRHZk~,uSK%P} ~~P" =k36nXy'X]8ngȑzEPL1z. ^#9jϋ$`@ak:e_9>>abiǝc\*MтxUbq+jǖy8e:l~*DxKd7G\$r>Iy 3( pEX4ezW5X)>W*223f%#,^WZE ^U q+3YYtٚ&* ֮nOV`ۀ۵Gk]Sro,+c#Uv>jWrm%wVj6(ȧ;O?CXH2NnksNf|,< 1+u P`~U^7>+f<w~_-F,v>e?}޲`"\V{P]&^''Z#$mJlRG8جyJ;7ԁk.cWW^hbXBu?ɯ/4۾l2/ؚR1M&%V/Т#8cS}Gm.UFj燤aӵ3Js+WВ[1gL9.u%s}kGHXsN#RyL@pp<.R sM,y L mA`p{5JV$Td8=M?i*"0ۻaXϻP8Um(Zv2{uNzlT 6RLp*a8dOjhW;H慄E@ cj{V$8۽x@!2dv͜󚫭qbG ^<`!{wr2fFH_cYo`EuԺ^&k*RO^3t|l&&qqVZ[Α#.Wv5{M$I\cǨ5mx-u#d/G'[TPȓˡ yEORe K{6.<"L{+2j:D1 8-x?:vKO|щEcp1[^ [’>Azg2\8#;}\"&zZn'hk5 p;αR^%t&I ln fndKKN6C$LU`qK̋xHWknax2OAꫩʲ!bDŽ$}j#%ٿÀ3׊Q ۷w!+{x/D2r#|JWFHvǽ@!%ҽVX叆T.9zTn$}J)OԒ\;ͧ] ?%x(]ʮqXKlqnr¤w^D7+9'vy)|xic?9c鎂@GhZt Cn.n%"޿/=zֶĚ|p;@۶+zƫ{a;-ͶC 7'~Ut^k՞7݀2w ; H<b{3Suz+ !F瞹㟭q=MT`:v٤PVpe8~cJt')4~fFO1)7Xy3Pxa%=6֖)R^@Q@ZxOZ5g5=Gᶘ7.D&!frE}JG4چcI=(]gdž[`Hd21Y}y߇zomb0FsE/ zgt:W5;;Z 9- tyYDl|?3vnK$-,W^H'9'ߴ_ 更 \]%W#\;N5e`z5mi7[]!bwYO!GJ9R L۵:U9ѝZ~oʴīx*siG$)R➹j;eFPbALN{[u2ˍ= Έ@M32Ė 䞴#z1lwW:\ЯMm/S[N|q_],h2Pkt#.=_T|0SVF."S5N#SvT%EmjH naEsȨAAsW5zÝ"?\Zcp.L'*O`pG)Ͽ>OC-6k7ۺW#F1^e11: b'$[ʑCo|tågqncU LcXyҹQOSMC#c##2E85Z6O̊se^6y Tڳ-Wֶ'=[\V|~u@EKQ#b}jQɖ[6dVޟ~9e"eӓKsGЊ,*I?:-p!{c׵ mגr˸zvE`Pp\{ҹQ2!Ȑs5[r;@tpHӉa"}@n[9zVh&%6̼WG\iƚARӂ>Z[]Ā*/ M Op$H6?6_.Qmo&jwWȃb'^HׅTz*\[Y8.58hxۧץc\^ɦƢF-KIkFpʹ/#u.|$_:ýu zf3Iv3ɴ{tZh.J2!A8jǂu]♊>ycһjyڣy (Dr} ,R*9KvsmV'rX{NI6-mvaXj^lK/Ԛ^ oq# ݇qWN8+4fC.(#!”d*g),R%hT0!I@!J:$M=/iuG>*ch#!@Mua<[U%ds%.|A4nR˖sRH. O˒9$( 2~lV}6I8⅓q21'y4mDX ʃJ/ZF\ b;;GP3~jnV,9#*֧$+,Qr܄i2%~c[ Ո"{{-p]{}(h{hĈ|N81Gz%ů (b7MpFzˊIZ"[8Jy)19r1AoXǶཿNHE?^P}f]2U!p;ArpN{Ʒ9efPɸ#|l鑞>is3]Jf6PyVPMA9qYj#l;?M5n<9؃vl+f{2)0>~ ZEnykz5QHIMd V|ug,ׯhO,7<,Y03{~uщ"ٴ{]- c?b8YuR8/~Y9Wanf#".;3"̖;Nr[0k23_Amϸ \*Fn_:Aœ*qѓhacߙzvE[_ H&^ +ҟ; 8Kkp:5#,?hivcMUͱW=hacϴ"qasjA? R/<"]1}?:Is.;`h|Y4HMcڠmB?:pcOVĚکǶR>3|ɦ EPM-!OZ`\a__ >xe=4OZu_hp.5S0OJ7 *$r xJAr+&u6m/%7u1_|UAc -Ǘp܃'iMs; +6hRGJh МOYO5{ķѻ 5ْo,s7 @1GOb@`ңi2"y}YE%TѳS pbhg\ۉ.3?S_-Fy+NH,ch³F3}~udc&I>UekP:<ěպRK{D|6q=*S#Sh&RAC'΄o;$kأ=\qtPn G_RiVPeӟUq #w jLVGw6VmȠY_t _A+ܨA:+PR#09,= xmG/̃UWetB$ $vh ֐?p/96łm*IpʡɭF#t y4nn,*  ڽ^v.?+6`t- w5.i)q]R;%(ѓé]iQb #_N<}:tvOVƕ[Z,r62Yϩ?a$>so-㿽mKp?GjC\` bFP7PFk*^4#=s꫰k,׼C>*l@/s d['ԘX_ \HEBГo@b8^CO=|-+fj 9(acl͈Jz=됿.Z4NrHhYpc95!fX,ynnK ZO-ٙm|[0 C'Vp~STo.fHm"23 o>ZZ:o—؏O# aUggmpRYD6BRz[0<+27,K;KO"dS(m0i:g&g g 9yoinU䰖5ic O3\wWq`w1ڧiyݐ0Z;}mnZ$n}ed}z}x~GҴۛ@ϸ ێS?!d%~@pa8V݄Wi/ FĮL=q=Ys7⡔ #qc8{69O}ihm`NMiVkQ$qFʲzҴVzz\8%A \$rWy-Jd c4RxbVLgq6 GM0v7Fk2+;{*vgKsbOG+ȇi| үNvC}l9;]63m1!kxXuɮF495'ZKe Kqz~U/DJz cj=Á82ySft].-RayϵԆ#(rβ_"4HGQ=N:bUٯe@UW$8pe%)hvix6-D:r;K l",:qϿ^ qn *\#.3qգgNF33tyb'sv=Gh tK~c|g؂NGbѩ^]"T b2=ք`?5t9HE m.|/%\Cop$eBo 5%uڴS\ym0Zv2YWVI) 15sm`zm4z0burXX/^Ct(Ifh& w?@jP{&s -s*k|Esn6$@ϹB*)8C:JasS}ʬkDƵzOM/cpU Br2:VƠ FE]?2}?ju*S{#7:kF[r>n.=R jO?xVm4Tr?QY29Z$MwoqXzS3&);ֽC¿`ڳN[K*H'ktcujnۭd齷ֆIq2~-TQKAtDFxNA{Y{ˏץ@^Oq] KJPϣWi+Q:s],#u5q'XSessW剐UeB%AMRrLW@[jEˎۉjG]) Ft?: F3:: i{g o$rH&Se̎Sr2JŠ4ߋ$My4v% Һ++XnH%m9Cchhi;#U{2kK G"WoCN+24]TrF}zXʑ)c>]T\@=oV4QbI=TzRoPT&4vG,0pI`HͬoFy</ wZՍdܐSoEwu.nf9) z >nI$޵^# x,p 5bD$XIjo7FT9`Uנįss?g4!%#tkWs!9,y֜lLO)'zIb C~p1@?Jnm36uy4W9$|US -2O͇.eb̍:c=OCbHpFG&WwMDV/)QV7 iEĮI zqPmjJpi>Tͩ;lt6pM { G qt>C|fAp:V4f*@+)6w7jM-ί{^ #ze{u8k) _zU&_H 1 :J'sy4i$-*]1G֐4O,0XK=7Mkb$c/+ ?Vnu3^FHc;r?.p__{jeIkcrMt);i'q#'s~p9*yk[uI6W`1=k{OZkL/%#n`}_c} In5Ic#[Duȩán87,j.;h֦l`sG*[3(x]u>f GӜ,8O#t-LٱPVVM˥|z4jq`1ax$15~Z+KP8Пk~Вs{HθE)ϰ4c֩١u9@*kWaq£{h|B!b|LAx:|@ծH[H?B?$lOF}*hGя>T= N{Y&~u I_jWOyqs!#H9L*[Hw Ǚ98Z6dv*9妐Š?yGdbC r>%c}oj(~ʬ!y\]%"w[6b}OζVh69HXE>PI/Y%*忕 lی\NHH'j䠼T\Ȇ ڝ1穧CE Wj(dߚ rjJ| iFU,Ctl@ >Wk}sz\hQKiA?$?2X{8ـh ?0j]zCũI坖* vp3\ƈq.#:W9sp__x+27SGmv<:.?uo!IVTu0GM lɹ}Ts[LPJ1('8*ѵqښmҀ*J`oJiƀ+U{ 'ս*<\>x)1ί×[8{c2^Һ_]iV/Ks8*+}OSvtё@UC v*SԴyeEls3M( ?r"W@Fy1Ut?O~j֯릫*61Oq\}ӥdj2N.z-,@7u=9QƼs,A+P]^zt-#PMqw EQp  Wc4= W9ԢtK?^Z}"m5HCM1XYn#QX>u?]zBy9d!k6OAo]Oߘ`5W +Zʻ-㹀xY2רF#Q=vܟ2ٴ%4rCӦ(mI&'*}kDYknXMWOnr[Znj/ٯ!v'k~G.+kΓ%"xXGl`2vYo[3d?ӸX顗p5^6YA6?xrj S#;OK2H~gh1I]j^ѼA%4j.ƭ[6֥L@r*6w_j\8UM1Eq=>Z(/2\"&V4Q) 1c zƳ`^n"v⴮$xϙ@#DSSFm bdQ1^$"C n$elg q[3yd!VFg ("6NO?҈&q6S> ecj,QI~A嘬T/J˩/R9mkО}aĩXൺn0z{QUkXK&1F3Z) d$} ZM(1BDY\# ֭I+ 8#0?qN0{}E@%VD鐓϶O5ZgApR0zB# K)Isr1PFU&J= R٘ r?˵I@%r,q*aP l Ķr)Zŀ8=#MxYA@GQx.-f8e`ҺKk@J BX3mOSiJ)uQKchZ}ܜRquZUŦZ|ILIJҵF%ͮ[_ NPzb2r+TNhlBhu^ѻaïFZYblh{y Uqǥ;O8v7՚)te`O~u[bɟOk1 ^(㫏#%v=57Ír6蚒_ʜ?ww EmJϛ?yR+o5X`9|q?DD?JM>SX[tkd'Rn(`I8_ E-sј15bs-E^Mzrd9 dG;-ЖQ/'l_l7QQmnhz0rzfH_Y+JrٜIJC& =+Q9iFܤJ{ݞ({뀹34jZ݅!<\] $o$ N+G?2mQ_hd=7A"iWq[Y[5ĭ#K3`+OF}G*0sj_U'᷇|+il6_@q BʚU&|FnV `隃c¾e'HP'ڝO l5L\W;aPm}?J! 9 q `gs1)5KiY23V8yVG ӼW\no(q¸ stY-]_o)ҕ#o-6HQ2Ʋoxy]$+-yz\G]Ɵ2 Fl6OW ecpG ֽe廹սŴBkgɂAn~r`19]Eg^ F< '6g\&~Tz{U))?Bv d4b98coAWS4K69 ¹Eӥ%8-%tonMqm#qҳ 7>SGo!o֭\1Blszac8kEV#ILVhmU T{BH,v=i鷿jP`#ֵt}]tQ$YI$[EGo[`<" \ n5gU #4&wp9hg;fP<2ւEgc p@#,YmM|=}3SM+'ַy"HZK$9}*ų̒O˸~o XxC8Eqoi`h B~yz$*erfC.q&pG^A#ZjE-˺g =@fkN@,T+Ctϯz4fd@Q 6*zcB{QJRg᫡#m' PsBͬIbM֠o:}0)^;~Z;y3wi r4\L-Q_IU>xe%I/l)@mŸV<fȅa}I,71ENb=涴W'hcYx:mmG6 sww[׮ }ğl`Ƙw/8Eu+Zq\z _HxQlj/՗,:9B{+Q^  +܂Vَ:~`HSuJ9@m.@G6$yՎr-%W?u6:oщ͕╀=I`1TQʳT+dw񩔫# iZR`wB eCM;!gp#<g8΀3W~ Sź 4ua%@!_$~#bpp{qCΖ2:Tx澥o+YI2yaܓ|ھbCt񃐧Rang4-zG ޯ(qo(Mi`=FxWk%G4B~P ԔI3H@xGn;|L>Lwe=;dׂUZpUq &ۏ~8_ 461OQ]oͻs9v|;ʀKm~ֺn !t!p/FqҘ -A+,[}?5^=]Vc^&P*Y6@qob`1ƹ̡}W| [w'̐.zw=?X-]ڏ-Zec Pާ8皌2 0'>Ҵ<Ŀhxqyzs Z<lj^hn6)+ldIq V#ҵ48 wⰮ=eEe*m[l**ax$1JG/Aֺ8C*qi@vRc-2)@1('ӭ)v(? L #ҀoIU=!^w< o_!HlRxyu J "9#MgRVdVBwz&-l"E͎sԒ}WaD:_}SnR;R7'G\y'&$͙F@ZL)9Y.Uy'4CޣJCR3Lfgfs S|$/ֻw/WE6 +J [Vo> L'??f9;sR@dWd@iOS-g`zP?α zNW)>2?v=p [R>u@h#Z)܇}6c k+Xf+ise4=UV\AkӣveyFO8Xfxְ;b ,||:5ɴATlE/׿=K[{;hS2> F&Iq j.’vWuHn\` s7BQ w;q|*FI*ƛ 1&bcn?(ϛ%vr,ҙ]JS@԰jS37IA#U&OdY{ZVIKB Gs -\~PI-g2mmē >c>bGܼ)6ޫ[km\r;ӕ=-!For̅@FX-9jUd9jr\+ew1d&[w{%z\Xբh+K cїcUv2c~t G d  C/CQ]"Ĥ%dWz|62Knq銎+S3+x*q$Ln3*Qr7|zܛIp >+GfrxY~_犤z֍[HcڭodZiΏH$M>x1V A鎝m,VA+!(qEu_~FҼK3'$s#s׷z]n Ɠ.ck/bͩ9(F;kh-X^orJ4EAA?uZJݮ7/!Bǎb!\vj2dp>Oһ&dS2D3!aO1qVlr%H$y2 m; {r+%s|m|"+TA$ڱnT,rHp?G9^sMlPgW/-vҷӸ/]jВ\b$'1ؗʽvwisҫ4mH@I^7$Xމ8+Bݪ[[I:sWe'tvֲsk<SRjd''Y6z4kV~8ԠW!a>cKv9Ҵ_!ı@I͏Ev#ȃ ߳bp,خj;/Œ6P# ܴfŋ(z[^8N>J\,$mXsԖ%;6][8Tc$N:ެ|Ŕ0*bI¯*D8ln=OAґMmpiCoӚڒѴKDp+.bO{$L7Pk?h]u]@|3rߎG^Z5m= fzkb-,O_ZN~w`g%l@Yv}E8lMk^`8c`=ǃtokv&G\ "ṋ:]LҀz1?=+%׀u@@-}0?kGP{wu9+vDUkپ K5y?~uր1P+X ;Q|?LT%yZVǨOZv|PTc[Czu,?COǵ&0H3@M?J@/HN=(^:l =s4c3/'^j^PARd~4Fi ~K>.O)2y{}9afzze7rf2yՓsk;K uʲ2 n8nnOXr);/mM!&$8P}3A4spK/ͻxfɩ/& j|זx`jǹIIBq{"#8iatU–!G4m I1}?Ziy!_ZmD2QL\GnFsʨ3d%8%GsE+Xd7sqҷnmn!YI5g5?V$~C͵pZEsIZ1xLG1Lrq^jVPb.";Ý dtw={Nm攺Y2У/SD(GQ~:FX\~gK$ұlX~|n}#(OUƱ&zj _(|gIs4~iXAƅ3ԵZ@FK}}ɮ'+Mwx9 F/S7HNde`ӎEO'fVgT}+\0p{z}`T~ ?#4XX_XHcz񚲚Viٰ#s-1.?0OGZL$N{|%j=x%z\=@ߥA!J;1Ҽ⌈A:{3}mIYU.4c.GG+ѕy\8;+|Oep%=`Ԣjl9'S֝~ |NЁ c4Kq*+y,Q3c;@jp}Fzs~.aēBFd lcp|w_ɪWwu3ݘpcd隈S?+Q-^@OP&]ΘXKi)cNG|~^7ӷ'=keˁ*݀Wc^ҏh&+d$ P>'_P[[+)m!mLj|ɟ?W&~T Yw~Y;W#g/j Vٿױ;#ཇ|m/!y>G]uqZ]zMe2:ސ##\tf4eyF)NZ<~Ɓmq|=+b%qôs ¾SgC\[e-n>5FRM 1 ~\| 9Ia ÜB84.6=?’Zn7־O@1ar:gξ/h|? οjW!.99隕2TsJ|q?@ac+14OMÃ̈1hdO ǟL+O+P3y0_xefWO^J->=E|1OR6"] Ft^_jDxg!b#AE 1+ \Z~`FzV1aA&Gz\ug8 t28{Sz2? sirA4QMeށ 'o^*FO>’ؠrp})r=i0H$z@|w Sr Ü ?;]>Z`-4*x9x?Zh$q\#ښ=8I}iᗆ|E+qhms-}H 3^C⿁:i4)"9v}+R18dӽOYr!IXZzWזאo-IP8?> jmdۿ˟t9b0vS^O`TL !6GSV AaHTfD<qڬnA-]ni-"N;V8ިp 3>wcAt|(9Zޓ-Ldh%ל__ʹ H1H`y%O~ҝtQ~ rq ӭ:+hm\,q#IGmj#6S@HcYmJ33%S"G[A m>_eFdrտ%ٍ;Uiګ.0x+ϵiNI+Gbt@M0cVUnAKI؟4G?vEhF2S5-vڒLvȡܿ~򬛗SjdpoPcM(w_uzP]@0p>QJ:ur^ ÐSNwbHPDS9&?-s0 _8խEA&5J"Z4O~;U#,`y{RAy3`ĎzՕIB۔ÑY%'q`={t0YG*y=pMUY%Xs8>VDqhQmq$%+GCp3,JFp3*_˼R02@UUa_K\GU:Z)f!7h95ynes]K˘dbAی☊ }zO .1ּ}> ӏʞ&@thqڍ@MLkJ4mm=DxMo JOiRG'+ ѯ`鲨;?ʪ#8R:8jJtj$pFKhhz]ZFxrGj2A*2_U,mSdwf)s(-G'wb,mioL!&LY݊.s`3FR3؊ы▚Biҡ#?. ytW- ,<3C SO% [\^#Uъ{חC[Vk;S;K>m(IcWa(h,`V?#FH{fH?0+L琔Mٱ>^Lgʂͱ'*xJ/+_+>$12Jo[^_9Mzz".#灤^ZdڸÁ1W%[ WZPm'r>z6sdo%Bq_ܮ|]ܴ Td?JiN k \yLW]Ŕ4`vu]KVЌw=MWpYu}CZ̫;<XdkDsM{̱WM#*$,ӁW<:A UK3\byn<̎9CCS8~T/o+NCu% {^_Hxjźt^1!X(x{_*ЦDbOϯaxK[o[߼Ч tU8 'Zi Q1i/ڶv!$p  ا}>CmީaxĜFwH8)Y $d9i0-E*ƒq2ziYd۹C@ݎ#vXәwRԘw~rqO KȘ\+nS+ _&xCt|.pƓW5QtUY~kχ"?, \UQ ;z |d]ua)-WL!i㳯C${֊؉Tv~N=ҪKmy\ȲC"WC~ZZ@28j7g#^E# +sKϯAϽ8{6QHFH֥~4¸^@ޜ=)/C@.zhҠz)I#;RGmLgސ߯|Su曜u@ 0)dsG?峊4£*NA"nG ~TPp{$~p:OTmKS2)9TNs+o?RQs-`,ط&,@?QY7? g[W:1t3gm^3sJ'f*a=j>kY^)Ԇ_RYV]믏깐>ZHHZ v^+XA?y/+7& Zkg˕oiŘFZZڋRWڮxQPFP`նN:S FOjfڶL+@i,]J篥iCrf-wxf,U2J"iK=O-8)*BZ+:*`?1X`gt]aEQZVFe݃d&z .$W<s(+8|V,\&u#߯?hrŮ; qWO.Y8=_R{mHOS$n !!EI YKUsQܪprsΊ)nFb26*ìjpx@Ā,T p("CH=ԪI;GEhCOrm׊ybs,~SQEg%G[\_]vVH$v籢ţZrwh:YG*WendmRxoaQZ6Id#9-H$Ebr~5kj (d&/܎OxsjjY%1'1{ETe[\vkīNM7S"%{t?Z2NPˤ+LaйX5]|m,G\]3μ+~'{ᶲmx-Ƀ$N$X\9$'4QYiW6a=6QSq7CP4B#|Et-&,x`΀ɣ#)A5vMos0Nw+>%xz @OI u(t Z5 kRZ8Ef[xc'QEH i#E R2q(`OzP!xd4Q@ ''˞hpZFi {)SۭPd"=P8q'ފ(`;8Vm{o G*S(-wM#P61nϔxk+ücm[Xc@ eo_QERo`9m~RH1E(CG3h@
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/2016-09-01T085124Z_1619506160_S1AETYTNSMAB_RTRMADP_3_LEBANON-BRIH-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

A Druze woman (L) walks with a Christian woman in the village of Brih, Lebanon April 23, 2016. Picture taken April 23, 2016. To match Special Report LEBANON-BRIH/ REUTERS/Aziz Taher

By Tom Perry

BRIH, Lebanon, Sept 1 – It took more than three decades and an unexpected death to bring the village of Brih back together.

Nestled among fruit trees and olive groves in a rugged valley, Brih was populated for generations by both Christians and Druze – adherents to a small but influential offshoot of Islam that emerged in the 11th century.

But when Lebanon descended into civil war in the 1970s, the two communities found themselves pitted against each other. In 1983, when the last Christians fled, Druze villagers moved into abandoned Christian houses; others were razed.

Then last November, Georges Chalhoub, a 56-year-old shopkeeper whose forefathers had come from Brih but who had lived near Beirut for much of his life, was killed in a car accident. Chalhoub had dreamed of moving back to his ancestral village and so his family decided to bury him there.

The funeral created a moment of amity. Christians and Druze carried his coffin together, reviving a local custom. The procession passed by the site where the Chalhoub family home had once stood, and where they are now building a new house.

“The Druze carried him with us from the start of the village. The reception was beautiful. There was great respect for the body,” said Khalil Chalhoub, Georges’ 89-year-old father.

Twenty-six years after the end of Lebanon’s civil war, the story of Brih is a reminder of how long it can take to stitch together societies torn apart by war. Much as in Syria and Iraq today, Lebanon was shattered by its 15-year-long war. Villages and neighbourhoods in which Muslims and Christians had lived side by side for centuries were reshaped. Hundreds of thousands of people retreated into separate enclaves controlled by sectarian militias.

In Brih, whose population is 4,000, it was not until 2014 that a government-sponsored settlement opened the way for Christians to return. Across Lebanon, very few displaced people have moved back to areas from which they fled. Deep sectarian fractures continue to hurt the country, from villages like Brih right up to the national parliament. The lesson for Syria and Iraq is this: even when peace comes, divisions can last for decades.

The Chalhoub family returned to rebuild in Brih only after national leaders oversaw the reconciliation agreement for the village. As with most other Christians from the village, their return has so far been limited to weekend visits. And it was not until Georges Chalhoub’s funeral that they sensed a true spirit of reconciliation.

“It’s been some two years now since the official reconciliation, but there wasn’t this kind of interaction,” Khalil Chalhoub said. “We opened the door, and there was a good response.”

The family hosted mourners at the building site where Chalhoub was building the new family home, arranging chairs and offering visitors coffee. Druze from Brih and the surrounding area – uninvited, but welcome – arrived to pay their respects.

“I did not know him, but I knew he was from my village,” said Hamza Abou Ezzedine, who is 32, and has only ever known Brih as a Druze village. “This is a duty.”

THE SPLIT

The first major outburst of violence in Brih came in 1977, two years into the civil war. Druze gunmen opened fire at a church, killing 12. The next day, many Christians fled the village.

Five years later, the village became a battleground in the so-called “Mountain War” that erupted after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Israel wanted to crush the Palestine Liberation Organisation and install a new Lebanese president friendly to Israel. The Christian Lebanese Forces militia saw the Israel presence as a chance to challenge Druze dominance of the Chouf mountains.

But a year later Israel withdrew from the Chouf area and a full scale civil war between Christians and Druze began. With the defeat of the Lebanese Forces, the remaining Christians were forced from Brih and dozens of other villages. An estimated 250,000 Christians fled the mountains – the single biggest sectarian displacement of the civil war. In Brih, Christian homes were destroyed and two churches blown up.

Theodor Hanf, in his “Coexistence in Wartime Lebanon”, said that it took just two weeks for the Chouf to be nearly entirely cleansed of Christians. The Druze spiritual leader at the time declared Christians would never again live in the area.

In 1993, the government set up a ministry to oversee the return of people who had been displaced. It took years before progress was seen in the Chouf. Christians began trickling back to Christian villages, but agreeing terms for their return to what had been mixed villages was much harder. The Lebanese government has sponsored two dozen reconciliation agreements in the Chouf, each of them amounting to an individual peace process.

The Brih agreement was one of the toughest to finalise, said Ahmad Mahmoud, director general of the Ministry of the Displaced. “In a place like Brih, you had Christian and Druze homes next to each other. They know that so-and-so killed so-and-so,” he said. “You have to convince someone who lost his father to invite over his killer and offer him coffee.”

Mahmoud keeps leather-bound copies of every reconciliation agreement on a shelf in his Beirut office, each page signed by the villager and official involved. Brih, he said, “was a difficult story. Their wounds are deep.”

Reconciliation in Brih required, among other things: Druze families to move out of dozens of Christian homes they had occupied for three decades; the demolition of a Druze community centre built on Christian land; the construction of a new Druze community centre; the construction of two new churches; the state paying compensation to Druze forced to evacuate homes, and to Christians who needed to repair or rebuild theirs; and inquiries into the fate of people still missing after the conflict.

Two years on, very few Christians have moved back to Brih permanently. Most have built their lives in richer urban areas and are reluctant to leave. As well, the compensation to rebuild homes – an initial payment of $10,000 per person followed by another later on – is way short of what is needed. Many are still waiting to receive the first payment. For most, “return” has meant weekend visits.

ONE FAMILY

Hanna Hassoun, now 83, used to be the director of Brih’s secondary school until he fled with his family in 1977, thinking they would be gone for a few months at most. He did not return until two years ago.

Hassoun remembers when the school had 500 pupils and 30 teachers. There was no school building, so the school rented houses they turned into classrooms. He was president of a village club.

“We had lots of activities, but then the events came and drove people apart,” he said at his apartment in Antelias, a Christian suburb north of Beirut.

His house, a two-storey stone villa, was destroyed in the 1980s. The Druze later erected a community centre, known as the Bayt, on the site. The fate of the Bayt became a major sticking point during the reconciliation talks. As mediators sought to reach a settlement, Hassoun and his neighbour rejected offers to sell their land. Eventually, the Bayt was knocked down and a new one constructed, opening the way to the reconciliation agreement.

“The person with no land has no existence,” he said. “I tell my children, if we still have land in Brih, never sell it. Leave it to your children and your grandchildren.”

The process in Brih echoes Lebanon’s national approach to dealing with the peace. The post-war administration agreed a general amnesty for all political crimes perpetrated before 1991 – an attempt to turn the page by allowing civil wartime leaders to move into government.

That approach has been widely criticised. The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ), an organization set up to help societies deal with the legacy of war, says short-term peace was chosen at the expense of justice. That has left Lebanon vulnerable to spasms of violence and political conflict since.

“What should have been done is to involve victims, to talk more about the war. Truth-seeking is a main condition for a real reconciliation,” the ICTJ’s Nour El Bejjani said. The Chouf agreements, while helpful, have not been built on solid ground. “That’s why you see some Christians feel insecure about going back to their villages.”

AN ELECTION

The fragility of the peace surfaced during local elections in Brih in May, the first since the 1960s. Candidates formed two rival lists for the 12 council seats, each of them split evenly between Christians and Druze. That arrangement was in line with the wishes of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt, a civil war leader whose family has dominated the area politically for decades. The aim was to achieve sectarian balance – and voters were encouraged to elect one of the lists in its entirety. The election drew hundreds of Christians to the village. More than 1,400 people voted in all, a turnout of 64 percent.

In the end, though, Brih ended up with seven Druze and five Christian winners.

Eid Hassoun, a Christian lawyer who won a seat as part of the “Coexistence” list, said just 15 more votes would have yielded a balanced outcome.

“The election, instead of bringing a result that put the village at ease  caused a shock,” he said.

Eid blamed members of both communities: A Christian independent had falsely claimed that Christians were secretly aiming to secure more than half the seats. That had prompted a group of Druze voters to submit Druze-only ballots late in the day. The multitude of independent Christian candidates had also played a role by diluting the vote, he said.

Efforts to redress the imbalance failed. “We tried to find a solution, but the solution was in the ballot box and the result that emerged,” said Nizar Yehya, the Brih representative of the Druze-dominated Progressive Socialist Party led by Jumblatt.

Christians said the tensions began to ease a few weeks later. The council held its first meeting, elected a Christian chairman, and agreed that any sensitive issues should be approved by consensus rather than a vote.

A FIGHTER

Another sticking point may be harder to resolve. Former Lebanese Forces commander Boulous Khalil was the last Christian fighter to withdraw in 1983 and is possibly the only Brih Christian yet to return.

Khalil, 54, and known as “The Hero”, dismisses the reconciliation agreement as superficial.

“It was a political act, not one of consensus and coexistence,” he said in his office at the gym he owns in the Beirut Christian district of Ain al-Romaneh. On the wall hung a crucifixion. A biography of the late Lebanese Forces leader and Lebanon’s former president Bashir Gemayel sat on his bookcase.

“If you don’t expose the past, and put your finger on the wound, you cannot reach the present to live in security,” he said.

Khalil said Druze villagers would not welcome him. “There is a veto on me,” he said.

Druze community leaders deny that. Karim Yehya, a wartime adversary of Khalil’s, visited Khalil at his gym earlier this year to urge him to visit Brih. It was the first time they had seen each other since the war, said Yehya, 67.

Khalil said Jumblatt needed to tell the people of Brih “that this guy wants to visit and nobody must touch him.”

Jumblatt declined to be interviewed for this article.

Christian villagers hope the completion of the two new churches will encourage more of their community back. The reconstruction was a sensitive process: excavators had to take care to locate the bodies of the 12 Christians killed 39 years ago and buried beneath the rubble of one of the churches, St. George. That church has been rebuilt 30 percent bigger than its predecessor and the remains were reburied in the church in August.

In April, there was standing room only for the first service at St. George’s since the 1977 shooting. Several hundred people, including Druze villagers, packed a reception hall. Loud applause greeted the arrival of the priests as they made their way up the aisle. Swinging a thurible, one of them stopped to kiss a man in a traditional black Druze shirt, shirwal trousers and white hat seated in the front row. Before communion, the priest asked God to “deepen and strengthen” the Christian return.

Ghandi Yehya, who lost five members of his family when fighting erupted in 1982, said since Christians began coming back “there has not been a single big problem, or slap thrown.”

Still, he said, it is best to avoid discussion of the past. “I might say something others won’t accept, even though it is a truth.”

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Post a comment