Men Join Campaigns in India Against FGM Rituals Among the Bohra

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((X" }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?XsIH:})z]:F3Lw)4+|qG9ht8RMG`(h}iM q)5OJ\u;;j9 )GAt+ Gށ4 Q҂3H8;VLSځ>駭;wO\Ԡ@I=(qL*i[ DQϵ y2jI2BGP<˵`sNc+$]yvr|YDau:̒ @?ZyX F-z.ڵP1U⮂ zᜮFP@)@gLu4(@i=q:###489Nl{TnNAЈZ\0 UT8ۦ> Q^(3I3FGzR94ƥFƄN;SIHrE{T'Ӛ^D(A$,W1ٿug)^i%6S[>W/ ^yiI%?@]qg&B=j·=k:)sg9J9AVd['LP7N4Nמ"N:枽ԴR'SFҞv`<:9('z旂1CK)ԀR?:*jpO_Ɣ;qHzJQ\sY(#JÎ:zȤ10@&N>1CN=FzRv.OҁƟzmӞ(\r3֗מi8'L4s F:YTA#s׊OBx"xj/OW9'x'.ի&|l!UpFQԟ%KOWcOj EK`QRGJ>)@ '8t9⁤'\QJ~iAZcy~Tw)zZI+׭ =1IؚW7Ja8rAEmi"DWzE}wjޭhV+=|=@=1ޛr}DCSdA*9=~Gqԙ,7k33ʩvsY69 s<ВFn78XH4ٻ;{KkoÉ lQVd aNK+uV*n-29>fxoC])mtӟY ՍI#$8qڪ:"yKR m<ŶH3Uiق-o>ϡ>\[xA[#Pl'ILD֟&\{VL6X2A}){P44RHbZO4 \Fh=h31/IG/LciH@NHHR xPOA> V 4Lb9tZ{2n2*dQ]%͸6*u< M򇷥Z0ph7>Q뜚O@Q .x\ґZoZ d!~tɧr-Q8t4 PA##)3EB4A8PAn Q4RCNS  xgi sqE)(?J;Γ𣠤TPx⓱=ޚrx % Q0;N'N֤bs44c[ښ ;0M98ϽHǚR!ҫMxSRq 9fLslڬN1 đ;$;c*F2`,W{&<*hAɪpjt U1jAޢQޥNؐ.r)@JE=riW0sž 1n8r=E4gA4 Xyr)"GdQi&z) !҃M8\SIGoZSJvisiz=`/SHO4{F  )g=j 4qҡɠkh;jp`V ނh# 0/jOhZ__JCץ!rM-CߞޜQZ:jqRsIw"m#Ji94vߕ! S;w Qژxc4)('1YžL=lQ)Vqcu?blcw̧ߚHq"@0<Y7,OHe:~4pͥK4C'̎Glw{NԍJr3]ך䏐-jc>\6gk eGɨL{0FARn^)g qCdS+܀z֓tc {л\gXbV5+d?UV\JsM[i1Pբmbې=&mvYw5bWka|#wA֮Yoq0jqzj9=QdsU9omuCNgj1k*[+XHH.[ӰɔF\_r'>[ožZqӝ7:zӓi63ONsl4lǶ+i`՟GDyZ1ס-]^YtzyT׎ɱf3YZ38b3Sqش:EZ:Azu4 pCZ MRdWVW^{yhr'x\6BC|k.G8]Eq3dyocRtlJ c@zzI~e$[bb89m=MABPN9K}뒪:J'~oL"A=?Ul=zW3v:P$xb#L2{kJd9\\W>U)b UdhJ1@U Q$g4F~cRH` zXǧZ%`c)s3zD& r٬Aw >=kӭi^} ZS Uh=ju8J9IמTEV_X$Ghs*vVc<Y^Y Up$N:J=?Z){QL zpSzgR+`r+w^QHsZ^uA1@!(JFG !Gg/\b=h4ϵ ;t҂qKq:Bm{8 4ғڛsHaA=I@Úin19v4"|QB({W)ڥ=O]dֹH覌ȦsR뚯s cSy]1=k߉ǶjJ mok[ݩPG3J4uHYm^)V4^ePH.RN<{GXe{Ӌ3Vu!Sv.T %iRB s%dk~D~dyI= kIu+)EY2|̝N3Sǒz01S<\ ۚGUhHZJzJ㚮'"tA⫡;Ԩߍ4.㑚r8Lc=MS;hAxrz(w'֐\dQ@jZvzSwPxVF%ҏZhNwcRAw7 ^|R 1# (M Q¦8@DKqԑN6(Ł eO$sE#ڨ\DpIZr69#nvzhH+NhU9bliKAQ{gBt gC9 -RQͨ4h[%8;GjI-ӯҶF&wc*&.>ғ$]Psqޔ+UZ3m8+3b$aJ??Z6^(LÞ7ʏ8F{T㱪j~aFF9MJrg=Y9p[#S'NjtjenЀ*jc4=89<=Q^i b'\`Jj=iA@ D0@9K&SKu)Q2\׊q#94s֘%x^qQ)ޜN9{ZR?Yq2xޣa S`5< L9s=W?NkQ1*6> ۳P5‘V'Қ#'>!Plf>}j O|U\D ׭ r0G4xǽHIⷌ<$\HGIHi1OjEǠޡ%5dD2tn=A2 {!Qڐa&ӥ7"a8}OAGY,.O;Y1ʢSIq?l0Q\Fj3^N?gdu֢bJUTyԇ=izrI:zTn:qR>c)9$9 89A*z'K4H֬lDOܟ} u?Cu52i*K(O'"6v]$[F5ץ=Cgq?O_x/^UiK"9Y(<})9t_7ÈʃJ u#kGй_c 8ڷXmC'=`qO{Z"TtZOlovA1r~G~z*S 68+cKϊ,-hg*}qWL3/y莡[ҤVM1aY9B5;;tftjUtG /}NS߭Kk,] OLz\ۘ=N7t' q;sqJ0oSRwwXezOQN BluQS;v Rj *U5Ҍ&;Tc֗q;t?Yk-)e,moek~@𞀧m#5[4.LN=_E1iV*wE^UB 7޳Wj1f J_ُbOFFhs´:W؁+*8LZ*ˢE-P:a}3/*;m2q>Z_$POo2O nF9n{ }wQצ*x=:ĭP=yڅ'`Mi8 Mϑr`~Ql VjPv&Iٍ:hn(P^Y;$JF2Ƴ?q!vqjiрÓjqI.Y7`1c>BܷfI'&9/o:HUee#iy4Smݱr=AG}6D HeV0B<3Y`2v8q?\ꦡv-BGI>:RXNq"쐂}8?k$Oq! 3#s5{s;Q4ȿN jZ"H[r^#wy!灣#"A/"mn1u#k*qz"mdj$בzGNU+Aǭa&:O͟)a+2i"#4wQs2팻d*35SPHu #4BNqq"p39+399i[bcoh˧CnY`㌓O~OzbY,fi%d<,FIV|m<*;q қ*j/.iѷ.{dt5gr.ʇ=i-ch#4Je,w^_.7^PO)i>ZSW[]fkq^9F?3Yh+"ZJ9SN9d8dGBֵy%LCU et֎ƕ՝\j?[^XgҦSѯRJ8_O=zUeؚbN1:㹬hҳ2wHz!=?[S?6EHSMBݐӺ2O@fHBj芵KXZ̟|o銡wDSX8l@a~vJs#?*a/4M.`1h#rq9N+_E b>T`: FoMC7|r']W.&r{ᮖtI`c돧 @Ny ƛm}9dtzfeԥ@p(#?Mո[ҹݴt8,?@)&U.KcBZG_0ۆ?KI.ћdHQNX}xV1Txk·M-?2Snt3^R+RVWc⽌^V^ة1O=Gi8'VD:ipFhL;cp*0sXwNLiAhE*9t.9z1持ӥ(=nQ4CaAҐZcR'=)D&w~'42snrGHcOh~'%|gIjaZcQfIOҘIzRI-yI^?J.ǫFpm3:P秡zҹw/[4HW&[3C1LE? 霞64ޑTIxhr Yz g6qaJCrOmZWw4!H#[oY:Z\`} 7)nJVWsqQ{c?7WFN9k-Np >U tɯrtt>ԥ}?j],f)2"qGaR_i3IQS$\3U"mmH{iXxFG)b#OMZ'p?Egsgf-$zg`FBGE-Ԑ Rv䙚 ݷ!}~BZ`l_ES=qc">GjFu7tmH۽>h6B|,>]O#@ZYd$Ky;AQ鴳#@WqDcz+AhqH)VV /Qڹ/f19R42 lu>1UP o-UiPnMX98dkݣ.OdWWvpBv0}?Z{[T7t].^Es-BG$` {R٭BLŃNQ9Nbƌĥdz/?¡x``=E&?a*Ԭ/.܍Tu8Q+{fGؤfE={U5kb3m|Hp 3$BnٟE.e %R7n~ RhRH?o?:u*8#)KE z{>u/bdsГy]P*(wTẰm""hٙERy|tH&8C5iG'͎]htd( 灀p7)^?*ꌣ7d8:fv;.$ٷnat,$BαAK!q5nG*GZ7<Ny[Q0:++` MF};TjO@4cT\cOZQ@bc] = }[KB=涠tP2@0|ՏQ&OZY/SP*?aֲ39|L}'g;ڄC(R ;B?´5W-3ǷV'Ud6洤M\zh!f9eù!?ZP]dF{pV'ОAj5R6u! ߓUNpLs՝`ˢq c91Qs͏YA陧h4ErOڮ=}"?sōf^en'S N5Y&W}~(Er#3XhI=]+ɉ?WV18H{M5ԟ5_3Wp"[G;qʣوR?P~{f؆ -_αgdR0@ixz2W9QBs`UkMbRrc8_u(~x.an%y?vܦś)~܉-D,y^ \T&V 2IIũXj4@I7PB՛ saQ鉾]W$̇2?*Pu} n?0zRm$/KرqQ ztdi9(?'MTC oVq3e Hԧ|zd14kxrq#TV_;f~fSc5N9ɍk?_^?*inhw,e=N܏F=](>7bϕu+}8iPJ2~fe8VU-o(MܜW?tG&3LeJzW/ oqS_PgXֳ/DoUJl5;Ԃchϸa=R;KElҠb*szU%ȂT &TysTu| 2pch|ȃ=*lS-_b v:^*E$ڨaJzsO\u΀&A_Jx8146@'I(;?3Fy8?7b[{QpGLbudPR3AIۮ);84)ZCҀ?'JV=)IHO wӳL 4x;Wbt/Vzd#]vSRb'=k0s=8d+_Rayd *8IIcQ,bsEs#c9͈cF |K;bE* æ==ZޒT!4OűƚżȽp䝷 ㌏ƶE$G*Ǡa ҡ\brpJk%"A=Szz%mTiSgt[`as=NinK6Qr pl dr0TH^SIlS?m#n 3`PfQ=Œ}2qU9#Je01QXZN1) H$yb8MN: i'jsxt+ic&Źdg@>QWtQ1Go3IY>A?kiV0޺j;AͮD-ڛNlSkitp}>; !rH=FѮ^Ք<ʕ\i':섣ȓ6,X)mTy.\>UH *2 >Yu <֕V{ 9"}c+%UC8q[*s:'בBӪQW+(^6v[),s=2)/a8#{]lBR2-O+6P#X` >ka4dEq&q G[+*p(/%0ʱ-8yHWMrz׉-,[-[U>5:]d;7[P}ҳ%1{OƦ&s\{9P"ucSOHhqR914h&Դ"4 I%p9=bxHim̺IJ_KSrq9F6@nKdIsBj֦sI[JvK˝\ZG00>f }[SyE:ޗö5 DrN@>B֙C*2Hrsry Si{ц!ӂFEr>&75jqxά m7#5ZՆ9nfk¤Cn%8-n7egkagopMX5RyG VP0FFpie&߼RԡғI_kT93R}-+ dT`S o?)k#N]ie'~ !@_:'PSlF]klb4?aO~+kKirvRFCU0Ƕ:S |J~Sxv,p'MV崋(42Y7I3^sֺ)ΕfgxvPqXVmD ǚxq:x;\/qYլ<=kMw. :…;Np8=i4{_\-֟j_64zv:η ((C5ขiN ̳cP7a *kܾEΧeq(].F*cam%O8`goj`_6|AEX,EudB[) U-EH2,WOPOɏ\cx b͙=+{ ީKuN T#m3UXGD 70m^<1꺖0s jNpߦ1X~ݧFRboWF`ⶍXۥvs9ߵ:%ӼEww-s5&Рv5RWo(Ѿnb_dDDW7Sú}k 7"ofquF>qY%8!jKZ!{RJ:SC;~wғ~tH\޳yϗ?{QR\AGk 8h- ڹ{{Uۉ]O>bI>ܞ|) +4\Fv:96p?*"11YXrkri W,qYJ@GK Gj9D|^sWOX&i3Xĝk;_t[2?p珡_ɨf㓔pU$"4{ n!N=U_!\+4" OA{ L{j쮤C})jkZ$jX0U\g9؉b/a@04PRp~ֺ^tp6rg# ㊜Co9=Ao>0k^̃1Ĉܡ<{WDyŒK(洤; ҆p=TQ}{RK>Bƅ3XZv=ɶDI=\t5عuky"^c =IzENJ]7bӬ vWHbN3[@cp A5^èz|"%Aw0yZns OR}LGij%^ XA+w'!wϧo¯hZEGmiHű*c4RduxԳrAv&4[[}>xTy.BM[)r>:yi*I5)iM/n ɫ׭p2qic=32?G.~08oa55uBz[i]{e,s;({v乫cAcj/@s^1I-m-d(N?] c?wWRۋI"HX&Z1ZBۛVsm6dgx]0n.6yk3F)HKf~RĎM:-mEa1z䔣=~~1Lg|r6Oks}s osTeb* zwV+U⌟Y]znM.BW{6֡_hvbHFTmN*#de۾YGYZM7z{ewdudKgֹeIN.~Kq#AڸsVL%&,Ÿ5$(99ji;1CE8i.2Pv9d#>XH =* ںWj'O_RNk6&I'$zJ fddJNufpՍTPsR)Ҷ2'V=yNIg=1#E'KsNyϮsKRפZ} 4ґ!})GҔJK}*HU+F砩"]wPDBّ%OڹF2e6)H^kp3 'ѺVMW9ѣBze1! =]Bq .CuCFx5 +K=4 5Х.bjgWm35yaqעE$5VVf&gxȥbUѠKI,R28)#n0*@?Z>Uf;X\lbYM#rJYJjKr;+}EjuS:Z!(:c4͹DWP۴$pN?*/{|F.YoۘQLlNsԎkI4}MiJiݵrms+F:&D0#ZӠdz4kHTnB(QtqVZcELd GK;c4d)՘oM1WJ"]/VF~9]ío9S# zSְv2k!qNOZ׋+Ao։¾ Ӑ@?t<h@;ԼCe SK-`#y[LռQ#$W@9Zwoj_XhΓH=L:6O7A}]7dXўF 2I(X6^1Qܞiؗe*=WLdr(-ҏTg24K ZD+خL-{"gR\]jW-V3rTcGvwmF!w9Ӯ.8}WR͝؎:?ڦf dҍ(ONP= mO\g W,9$N#]~b{{#GLb1qϽc2kA ֝_k[HYV=# $r@1֑U&io{]d>-.6&8Tt{mk_hРr8%gqg9NFj!K+x y8}/Aǧjrz\0bjc9I>Xlmq)]dz+~_RKys9lgxb1<7"vӭRܜw;lR,2.BcG[^izWvjHϱpF1>^f&쑳p!Ӄ\^;Ww*B\tn$෥w67_H|pXkkD0z.e>f##V;+wx%VtJnܯ݅{hC^ i L]v+%@hP1zD~ZŖ`#9.Pu ]vЗJ:y=[FiyֽgR/\T#Jҁuq~'i5jR1Cg&E!OL'Ҕh'4Q܅P2I=+7wRzWE♌znC Hf95it:hKi {`ZkCG)Zy3##VԌOނ^E`S'V%>SqU)/^ٌwWESשh.IwL9zՎ R2k]Y@14v8e& [DTmz@W 鍌ad#AԕK={4e`;d?SH.$,A= c>Rn47!vLq֟vFXբSFq `$'B/;9I}qF" =e\fxA -ohpgYPqJۍV nʣ,3~'92x8,ݚ {`a~C["@!E}mҔJ ^킻)-u)F@0Gd|Cq̶.vo2\ cuciI1`m*NzCzVDͥW5E4ݰvp;+xD9H2>Y0Viϫuu}1?Nr.dk~X60Dy;噇26(VPUF7D:^iy6qRw1ԚP$P[s\r/{7+@T[A$Zfb7$kׯ0"Z"67IHbr><ߍt-hr[G-we} ]ӯSP1H2PSZb-?/3<<1#?Lltmjտ8iڼl%X"4}1TGtJ,O?*ޒ&ZDGo pĸH*ٞ%UefQǸXmъ*\yoҰRSn/ʒI\lq;UݏZ ֛0-o*R>ẹll/-ɲktT2")׮$F$Ȕ,n'즋Yϛngpg // b=ҳ2cEp 3ؑk)E.3^{[Ю#pЕE?N QNxZlG DЌ޹ K4p}πÐ.A6:4닔DPīo됣ꖦ]f/ۼ p?#YiPYK 嶶L\=zqZӔ\Tbd[-50,w"#<$q9-'^eʠo#hn3M#C}jԔl#SNqhMY\/wbMe7F"Xºn8 5>i*$UM(GVv#ywZֻ.vmsը"O V>V'k4|ňm 0cj`1 NH;xs+5mN {} q1%*u?7R]߸aDхxK ?$?Aһ0Z&8;Mo=wSW/(t |gQ,覴!S8ɬ{]^  6dHWˍKs[ u1 b::}Є R]`za\iS|éԚK,kW(DSr=T֛.}Z&] t -as<ۄ??zoo}6 N}cXι7<zsӭl鶷21~G`ZjZmw=l~NM!N chC`\v \N3\5#)^[ܞsNmxo.+L ߹ I`Fىu;ėo^@<3Ξ I) &՚m?`H H?)'VD '[xxEj-hƧh OסvXko&]2TR.)mZ:zw^30*0bOק[̓BcuFs\E֣jG"y;~rP\]:5`˽2*ٮr$ѯ6[{"In>bpGl\E{`k^i"ENkZ 2E5 \Ğ2Ν|XJ9G9 _sYZ s çBjTfbB!O諻ft8i%/b`~ 3Jھlȫkr0p H9_V-&-Fsul@wcy6kƛ4g{;O݄׼?ڄ{r1?J|/kWkĚvře㚱[qpuMRHbc}B>+ TA))+#yx`Ҫ{oc$rT2j&KtUNm#C×]]i)]_CӖ\x|(oզ5(nm ma^Kei-,B9bwcHRDPl|O$q+ &wp"2$ݴB}i21&j+P[_I;GuͳN򲑆Ǹ5J85}OR63ܼ42 {dd2]68>™kćy` E{=Ь./eSʖ(ǧLvP3f!C"9P: a3v&vxv^GmVt#ߐG" $[*$`uUg G".f-pw"3]dk 1P$9|evkY(ix[<16p9Ǿ1Y~|/ !\${}*#kn͹ፏ^T}~ĪCHN.֯sZi q !J z9]*-.ݕpryNzkB4H#EUQF~j*\V@s oojcA;<;d}3x ds{]dprGnE7Lz$\ah\4sO&ǡNJ^JX3DO8$u )#Z[$ :i.!qQƧE?O9#RUTu$U#"9Ff|Tr~h֗'R0 9B:`*jteH$D%JC/*!f`we]YݴUvrk.YDK]3I$O2,H'gI/mFepF!]*KoR9fQfP:zs+@&?SVHDQFjvHb.l4z67sinu;;nc-<>FS;u tZ,0vF?:ZVWWd@FNcXԍ쬈 @ eWa=:MF+3M)O5zB9+F3ҢD#l{CˏO';w2OI܄|zg_`aΣ1V.j z\r$8^sR]C!ʑ=+gNF8e!mۤmQzVr9P]ͼLJ2=E`m'- qF-֯[#nj\LMvVv!NzrGnJ h7qkg1 B¨(2޶-Qa4] Һ]hƚU}Lԧy{ia5,myq~Nlޘ1+XTc36=w*rCO$U)/g̞AIߔ =.+Vڹ+&-bHB|`,G톾.pb[7٣G#U,6%>[뗼uJVʶ32?ZzΥ[QYCg!s8֘TQm1ǵW9*sUcTRǒi FkT-c1Ew'85xOƾ֚vG+.}O/<#j¶) {Ɵ¸G0摅ijql}2*hOׯ=N~YQ֭ "LRsN4 #4Q9GAHMs-E2z\zCғz R:bOLӳ)NyR1֫^B6A :5d?+\kW0cu$gr"H0F+U,~Ѓ?q/9pՇ+;h8O~^W 󨤛9*pkO-ҫNZd p՜sW÷ .p>$3rO׵yPe;3Ű͕,fP=?NX.جr1N:>HZ,s x*(`ȄI@%+d \_i2JYFqiNm$+Gck[^`Y \9=siu);s-FՀ犩jPhp]$FS~`3S}M&Ix:k?o9m=n4  zs41Ns*6<(Qf`oogߙ6~4:[̿q~V`|[A8#kd`U}R)uOٲ3F0\(>ݿiҺ6_1lWdZ}r||t -2rY =I+D%TP:(@k\hqt$ة}}Mj*b%>uw]~NM1bA`G9Nn}xSRiuV`遏}b0E7O)-HsמշaxWRA k zjIj@H(?w* &) 95L䯧{mO]C<`njbx :ƿ{y%V|b¨2k|LNO`GO?lu.3_u;#k.}C_>Ƶ ŷ~κ7cXtEeR(;ZΔ䔪vI yc\,ǵirMkꖑ_"oA8EtL4,2QVvaV2eRpOZk.N:{l@?tOW<{Lşjrp~qIطe 3,Vc>iq$0͎YTt 4XEN\ֲ z)U%w*.rORNu#rOÏz`jLdTT{u=RgN;(́4gf'Hh_SMnwn c0{d8ȍ!1^qڶM&w)U=+zNQ4* {ʤn+3ΦUܖϨ3$*k;7 ~*wSϥTst I6Mzq^K]<W |l}:1J8#l`Ii5;ֶVna$Λx,A}EjqIDH{gXYorZ9$L:9+8' M"|UZ? h]'9%3] sM;x(R4UT`W+{'CKX,^FHi?ÂG֯xz{-C:CRI8AZ#h'LDZerYEp&p-̓pH)%Xa#năb?zЍMD6+=~沭 @ђ\1'%@;VNNtܢb]J견ڋ.Ѵ|52M"לS޹TI]=GAN}i^72F𤴱d.dr͜XpwP{=:D#|XpJaӮn{y >c;rkm9cb:Vu{˭RG+h1(OnkM#=.LfI@AQCs`T\1˯Ҧ^03iVRc;>) b!h+g1bH)EuzR\ Ak\]@&C]#=DY_F73ZY򵺷G*+f.:f lg*?`Xů[[2i ,lG;{bi9a`ȡՇpy)/"pTKŽqJlSlVO60uB$\ ෯&XCXEkoD2sNN*$;@R&c[ڭ1*]xp>EQ֎4WVl[w[}P;wkS֞Ͽq%qOA֟FiTh J}Ye/#M”n$foAϚ D$5 P &ȑqӇA&8穧cC^ixJ\5qD2A֞}1SӯhdӔL2xEZ(9Lw\A)@I)'5NdOLJ뎴zsdgaNieT8OBΌb)8n\@zƫdR2nW4RC\"o ]㊧79편\ Ǒ4lOŖ=憽{ Lիq_1+T^U^ԇ-4n!<)=Ԅ*␚LiTwCOJi915ZO=&A˥.KX ҜcҪ%M~dX1_#8=ȤT7S,{ir; 2c41yi%[]6GF((䐠jڍg+D8$gMhQ%M\'dxnI{5Į2?CQqs/%;-P?sn*v|4 瑚8\ 8;R;}i41+3TC,Y3'Y o/FHE+?*sXoOqz~GkC޹U#&nrU'icR*˒Pw Ɂ_+SL81sWUZbQ-LP9r{xG.p-,1=IYh`Ì2HO{ s̺mT#-]O\HUbOq?!VtTcF~φ1qpF2`tPx_yUǕTW"H)~c+ȊR3mx'4<&v2#"^pNqǘ5SPo<_by6@xlL/WHfE͐9'W;eIo%-Np}])T]5c_u[UwHUpMn,un2pAUچ+s!)kdT*kVNE"ʁBt* '%)zPk+ ;ǽ!S.1 U8H%5RqҌKIX.~&(WkOGHKf3W7P~S$]C%nZX{&ZcOצ ԓ_"meGzĢ\Bǁm)?ӜԺu8#3"^@ϫ7oAZעN/dʬ2 \׀ @HY[=_Ϊ$=֞z>SqJ+p;~3qnzKNsGԣڭ !fp8b&^$@gci R >q\*_b'榯Qr@*,r㎾"z TYQӽIsLC:wRtNqEv@QE.;GҐPZ})q4QHHB)s(e #4;QE cOn]`O_Ɗ+)- fRE(f7E ISM9ew(b]koNƃ#Ɗ)PcGE-Wd(.@_AFEWy2%2nڐADJ LLqQEoG^Rд YkK5G.|p2sEB6Ȩ/QEtUQԒq3u{m3fUhq#`vӀTd?$\~hboi!u̝ R8A ՉS2|x ~? 7m2YG@KGk#NC @D[ lgQEt%5E]=s:[5%A4QQ=(E.kY2V(@;o Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/CdKCvfGVAAA_6P3-600x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

Photo: www,twitter.com/aarefajohari

By Rina Chandran

MUMBAI, March 17  – Men in India and Pakistan are joining a campaign to end female genital mutilation (FGM), adding greater heft to the movement in the deeply patriarchal Dawoodi Bohra community.

Little is known about FGM in India where the ritual is carried out in great secrecy by the close-knit Shi’ite Muslim sect thought to number over 1 million.

A petition to end FGM, part of a campaign led by Masooma Ranalvi, a woman who was cut as a seven-year-old, has drawn thousands of male signatories, while its companion group on Facebook has scores of men speaking out against the ritual that remains cloaked in secrecy.

Men have also joined a social media campaign by Sahiyo, a campaign group in Mumbai focused on ending FGM, known as ‘khatna’ among the Bohras.

“The community is patriarchal, so men’s participation makes the campaign that much more effective,” said Ranalvi, who plans to present the petition calling for a law to ban FGM in India to the Bohra high priest and the Indian government.

“While women are spearheading the campaign, we also need men to be involved because decision making in the community is controlled entirely by men,” she said.

In Sahiyo’s campaign that invites Bohras and non-Bohras to post photographs saying why they oppose FGM, one man holds a poster saying it makes him ashamed of his community, while another says it is child abuse. Another says a woman’s body needs no altering and her sexual desires need no tempering.

“This isn’t just a woman’s issue; it’s a human rights issue, and men must start seeing it as such,” said Ammar Karimjee, 24, a Pakistani student in Boston, who realised about five years ago that his sister had been cut as a young girl. He spoke against FGM at the United Nations last month.

“When I started speaking to my friends about it, the men would say: I don’t want to talk about it, or it doesn’t concern me, or it’s probably done for a good reason. There’s a basic lack of understanding of women’s bodies; you can’t empathise if you don’t understand,” he said by phone from Boston.

FGM, which can cause serious physical and psychological problems, is more commonly linked to African countries which have led international efforts to end the practice.

India is not included on U.N. lists of countries affected by FGM, and little is known about the practice in South Asia.

TABOO

Campaigners say Dawoodi Bohras are the only Muslim community in South Asia to practise FGM, estimating that up to three quarters of Bohra girls are cut. Although it is not mentioned in the Koran, the Bohras consider khatna – the removal of part of the clitoris – a religious obligation, and debate on the subject has long been taboo.

While men are all-powerful in the community, they are seldom consulted before a girl is cut, with the mother, grandmother, aunt or other female elder taking charge, said Ranalvi.

This was the case with Saifuddin Suleman in Pune, near Mumbai, who said he only realised recently that he had unwittingly driven his wife and daughter to an appointment where the girl was cut.

“I did so gullibly, never realising the trauma I was putting her through,” he said. “My daughter is 18 now and she asked me, why didn’t you stop it? I had no answer, and asked for her forgiveness. I want this barbaric and inhuman practice to end.”

For Bohra men opposing long-held traditions, there is a risk of being excommunicated or boycotted socially, hurting their business and their families.

Increasingly though, they have precedent on their side. The FGM practice among Indian Dawoodi Bohras hit the headlines in November when a court in Australia found two members of the diaspora community guilty of cutting two girls. A Bohra religious leader was convicted of being an accessory.

Since then, Bohra communities in London, New York, Washington D.C., Florida and Orange County, California, have passed resolutions against the practice, campaigners say.

“The fact that it is being banned elsewhere means things can change,” said Karimjee. “It won’t be easy, but the movement’s gathering more steam now.”

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Post a comment