Putsched Out

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?0bu#9'?WS߽C5mOjF9\_2W @1ʺ>O T9*花 M ; Z܋8dqS?Ji sN+E&3P+RF$W^nMx(OC¨Οp2iNQ_.WHmpZm:Rrʴؓ@dQ,@ǭ]񈸚U&FxcJN8BcɩZƾY;ذpբg2 EȭUf 2y Ԍ9nƉ9R0YLSYA*gB@j2rF+m.0)VQReI9()tG$֍\綶;=T 8zF' .8) qCs|{w+jSHxC;'zז$o梔EyNJ.!ilA45QBU.w`lW=w{0 +.VBG)DDw H@{}kۼy6ӟW@S]xr0=FHTq5=M9SͳppX7ڲ+f8m9<;붅-T9=YEMrpArA`X9fsgrŴB7!8#A98 ӁY7RH[ ?j+dg&UIqTu!P9uJr}GX\X{DFv鋖NqхT\ˍ\d={~U<"k})5e4g-mzv>66O58= .h'fEfêd)(s~ Se T|Di?* ~5rΡ݇j9$ʇ,i.vmnS T1K+$2Wj_K+6y 2g/w4}1e{ّW-6OZp8\R''fuBTV&GJ-3ϝQI5!<<n)"[trB88,]_4n*#W5ib48L|Xڝ5FIm=+dI;0UZ ;Di1NiO׀xfB:L3FiY!s32 Fչny.[m3S_5v8w5Qe݀Z bz'XZ>tauTI.:~ xּMe8x}vh;{n08eTq:%y@p$ֆFmcqwv,In\1!QKSJmRFjylZ/Ɣ9M+MojgC_vAmd 9I25F)d~p :>ai sOQTo1`$8j¯fn8拚\d(r95giO5nqZX$Ӵp5nKx2+oBT hܹsXӺs[ HW{h2e@V IFd#&.9Wֵn^WY`QUG)5SW-Hqҕ,و=0i\9Kdg F1][ڸ}B͔CcHs8RH3Myr&sPYi컮cNMsꎌC[Z^,Hg²T:4o%U%#t5-;Q(ʯ[FZJnXFx0QL0Eu To0q7jž{2%aךY*sR6ֆiWSҬJ>s Mҥ|F8z5 EylAqSl>MJqXkdw/jiI[㡧SXIVhZ$V*$prrOGc%Ӧ9IJ&Wێk,Ke 2?8e!ٗ6a}|y@F/5#wP94'eڠҶКh#\|+F1P@s^";{K>g!XgRp^ř.˔rzW"CIǩ%=j~Fw-"MTy<96am"_ Ct?/ W3r%ql`!W7-`̣Z_ ۣH:Gبj{=8Ff9[MrP ᓜtg]% >dhXE&)Tppk8Fk$bE,lqbcsc&k.n5m,*_-Ng'mI|O.F=I@,4gD$׼ ebxM2 W;E^rXcs =+(8+$2\;GU6D#X#y ^#\϶c{:)n] t5 [ Tr?Xi ?)F=j/rO Ok$r6s^KzX'ar}#\zdBkg;rf)qQ.;? ̸Vߐ65losQ̓s.0:̻֮Uy}k29uOHk=q9ڝ+jQB {qKw \GJyze`cТy޻v1N )*GPH?үJ+8X"4׈K6;rVhx~*KIFm t'j N=4XLQ#T)Ԕpˌ}: De!8k:\$o8qӃ╋WKy Cǯ\%Kټ!©: wr1%fT,sJ@>!<v&R%_8}3-yo,%OĔ>m<6yv+~D5*ޞ`G pN3QMx"`͓}~?\ΡloD= xGow4 ]B^< +gh ;sSGK\+&9q/xAp^0ZHrH;3j]t^a]h #eVV V[V0~"O@RkVy v{`k_6Z7;O dv1=M+QRWƣs^&"LpZ3ml,lSsЉSo ՛h|~pUV:i+(ngQǹw. 4vq:ֆm{A/j]:H*(%$g^-!W=wJ$ÊI"e98\e[[}+W"lW^bE1PErƊՇ}cqdKcz wF&ܹa8q-J;S8啗kP{KNGUb^!nKn +)+)F^hCqҢ/Z 3. 8,}`.K|5Xcs4|=;4y/q/gmmrM{~k  `3O_]٤zm0#E>f %${dCX_tus^z8MQpFX r$Qh%@rx2sS洘cNTlUWi]&R&;UԳ9RڤW]&xh`3>dWq2+<Ⱦ[c/#?ҽ'sLbeVlnUPy/X߲|ݼrprȪ{g_%um8cGf2 EkË|F}8?ֺG?DT^KUqKFI\F:`z #Z-5PޱR$ Z'(H`ΗP̠+}?ºl9d,WwhL-BQĻ?-1<WXn“V4з~T^l ραt| c1u!*E[9qRqrF|)7xVa?ꭖqir=)n?PӹǍRZy/SKDu:W* $Ome'nƱr<j䲓k͗=FX~U=YJMha杧ܡ.zW} [+A*8#qHX[olwwA=C͓Y/*yzִz J .cX&HE#UQ9}AHWmێEGʳ6KFW?z'PJb>ޕ-FXdS?8WVe9<gRVPZog5T0WyMs\ɚ˴lk|q}5~ x;h Wx\k떑N*=ky Ir `O4Ac˚ɒzRS72[۶Vf=OJҟZ&e5M9&iՄACcH#ՁҚ1R)\v[frF hY*K=G[Ū#I^uX-#Cӏ+-ʹհA5 HO,1沪.nV2Ơk9c*sjxb3RM쎨Gr|0)rjQ ABm5M3X-qkq֡ sɩj"/qW؉ W,w0yՖBUIU%c&wG\TX|̬zk5mR<B^brN+-4ZQK1pKzRU)՛~ˢmke֧$Q(cl;cWw4o5ivO85f)H+8?9u5SK$Pe%aC4Ok7tkk)KYն$` 5 rJ+@d =+T1+ YMgɭNzYE+FۇZ4lamEzoǫk'IGG[B|JN_kKmZq1F<exR9Y-WG5Ze4RG݌`v=I9/"?jܜJwsL$ ;WZlY]1pr:ל_\JYjw.ē.TR>S< 5ss9y_et"Aڻ?kz|W a2=ۃl1P ?v吕c}jh)>hfY4ahdrS*z'&ݎ[ϨG}8qנJFy;]JjI+r i K0ܽx^qcV fP9<~MFwZnEk$U,u;$NF_=HV}lLk/#q+5n7"/h%in m6ɹSt':c+azS`Qws]}ꭎ.de;u; bo`:;~5O<#}yapHe<2:ڽ+6m/# Įz3HMn(bW ֜) U⒀& R$t5Xp4KmN<~5i)QǞ|pkSqJ yVƲ)=>a?ZG,>Z%fS#*v-l(R jUe}M$T.&RK\tL!II7ϻjiTnZ12Rdg/Bd*܊LwA8CZش`-u g6 .=G5=I1E9u&[LY<;Q} x83avMb `g~emc39Ƭi~#⁼;i`x AJ0$z#ӊ<3ZD> c͙p$#n:OV7ea<_,fVpA||~_nxIZ'DU5oJ ϖoRrШA-YjsZ%IguR?pseZi/rsp*: X*9'{zfU$F6MFjy\"(gq-GŖFÖ|E;#pTBA^F:v U! $lr FHes<%=q>[! W$hnfts*;[=\&&| qj;[kUFH0r.>DrZE6[6sV-*Z٥ykb; |i6M{mᤄo}+f/r+g6aC:ؤ6z=ӯ+#S{׼}ohŬCj6JqVR(˕HRM\E Jkos\|g;*#=趾H'zPq՝˙+R 5y6*ƯG$qU1[Q"*EaT)*XE%7$9g{/LiYGzӀ;6)jeO/y]z auJui^i0d-y9=⼳V 39*#ilo@d tI#Ԏ^Yo#vZ1{Z%_Ҫc\skw=:Q\vwLjUˏ]m%9@'cUk{soǨ$QRny)V"G"5<;t_D]?nЋy< ul>qm'޵_3AŬRC~(ӵp e&~%c]YF1H z!Ҍqc7Op}kt: R2j@9R?A@LJnN?ʺr)=Ugs !+W.ҺUMHkԾiXsDb:ubvݒ@}n< oͱ"A=* UHP.;Ybo/RxK3њCb#Z?i3E8Ua/#P[W|#ָ]f+,I /Dv"1QVrVfÿ́6EX[s^iTJʟyKm)WQ$M j?#^q`UrZA失rr1uV)}Ijg,+N; 1¥XF:b鄴McX9\֬_ߺ[Òe}G .EY95*#$rqjW b+iQwoXMH]VJ9s6#*͡SE,yiW:6qw7d4Uٱ.X3#[׼hUEah>TfzU#oi({R9cu WC٭w8kUzl|c-rRgHbt?o狮ʜxJ*%r"BaIouZy-2$cҺNVNk.~SƼV1sz&f`; ߳,5WTV8Mzᤙ3Yz@A*dA|Et69d[}ï5U4IղE4"/2c:(hƹa&H oYVl ҉iJNGk"95P`8M([i~6\$Wڨ2WW\IAyRŒ.RKXHR229R׵#w06ѕ2ҽↂnmPPFr׎][)ZSiB\u0wyI t['YFg_%+I6:r->kE]G8`ڛڞw;‘X)H\M '>8D|`Mps,ұqQ(OŨf{h㐨 YVn*'#Lu~S #9_WUEy\Cxn{#"YeFuJwvXʇ*vTqG)+cү3`EM);`+sZ2$fŕcPK7aJ*$왟fvkooּi@|HԳW hλ>ZAتaa+4[kxcᧈVX-@qڻ xoC\ ۄ9~sc}7U娖&+.>d?¸KG={\ o7d"JJ۝FlhL5Ufbyn݀մ)8C?#֧d{߁[{r pLWW݈- (Ҽ໴WNK1k(ѫF@9%~_VܵxF{Kճ#N{a0[ xĶ3x 42q}D&}\,UӓPp{֪Pu iN|R+kϋ $V@zE:8#(=})SmWwQHa׿zΆc Qיjrq=֊Y'٬EA'~;x/B[FZy6` ݅:sQ:# [=Ccb5TRx?QTWr\]W Ҫ]"-Aс$#4eMe׃ -׌PA|=xd~FyKY%!6}[Ԓj>/\aR9Q]Y}?iY_c0M8=hCoO9j5%a\|&i'yM74֋Zp5np)*L9W4jԄ1Դ79N#Vi>-7 7pkCd iKqRH')"28`" Wj)ltO*N ;HHZF 335"T]=i٩LgIo>nXB`#suKRd]JíE@죭YMtU 8` u'{= $ 댞J}TIjmR-mbFbV5ɦDKRW] Tb:T􇆴]i0L V8|cc$ND̮2GB+ܾmwq"$"';$p238a;hVn.eyLP8w>8$Z\G̗nX5~,&2qWҳW=MvP3oe 83] ɩx_R|r9??:qNWi|qrdrqSӮUehXBHPu-лI"ǭfn䘚"jquۂ@֧KX3ˑNs95CdJ'Udя\z Ƚ`3vӾsXwܖ҄} 6!dU@B9]ME7WtRRH^yujm@-Qpw YYZ6; sVf ^=Mc’[O+*[qS]C(ʧv=a}Ag)f4Kd9o,PU9ic[KK: n1\p|ASִFt=ԟd֎)\xr"F pV.bitA NJOV|`yOȽɫ(-h47Z-鸜]P))z{ǭUy5Y5ndH90ZFTlk6H}^eTp'ʯT\LYUO54X}]SS:`м-s;Ȁ o8#y\~f%XXBO^x$wI#C`ǧ_ӴY] w=mkЖKvktQ\2Tן %q~דE<=(&_O6Ҝy5k@okɦkqk)uQ2AK~ݟ4Km^4LW))\A}qYoZ3\Inn$08ج 3@țD=d}MqbbTqdw)*'UW@WI$5ñqGokٛjy 'ubb03Z쉽41Iy%Ғ9 ;jw/ 3Ȉ~Tܟ+O>"]8dίa\tS֨ԛ¸y4c{AIL Y2Si'v4SH=nҤcBNIA=Q}zګVzn#W=˥Bh3E:6gPr28Q)]݇$杠oX"T?J< ufIF@ֵWjaGԽDj7gj kQ/d V2)'u-^K%ivxM߸PNvH95+|AVuiRJ[z%«2n[loFȦަIhOnh^ր&B2&,~p*4l=*HzI %?ǥ=ri 5~[ԺQ,R \z0djxVPFved#׿cyĖ:~:ŢpH4`t>v[ͦ?fB:j7OLQxcoY#[}FrH9'$𪪡7U(=:Nj7+'@TEuۯH홊8+|5ǨmA/:i"GX}U#$֗utu&)oԭӅ2Wҍ!k8D8L)䞀{ah& >> iڤHLHvkë'؟ Mếs0 Je*F>bJ"F#,3HJ]N5mmtMIf{u cJ8<㯧nk.Vs0`.] \dsu8sJzx߱R5:y2ZORZ`JM l|}M)Zz*^O mPY"\g;dy\^ jºdW%Fc7 bP<׸ 0b9D'fE!Oa-Z5C= TF`-샚6ݖ7:m*`‚~KYkJ6"ZT#E+l)۰z^eb0:YP%ڠk#驵>ds4He'缟tϣܴ%GQ P aWx{E5'|>E;KLYNy5|+҄a A(m|4ǥznW 7 JOi85mw q|Z]GM*I|d1qh|MZV{)$Q32qcNIYuI4y.{-ΧE{[k֧CkzuAk v`Wud_?NJFpA ՗WzY1Ns^Ms }_GCڻvum5pT5tes蹫TgpCq[Dcr(\펦sYZV'*H]Ajas MIx>&!o wQ@qi2 º>6{ *]'P&K`DӯNjWstacu!<^EՉQ˞^s8>^L뷰ͺ cJu{ZpS=Ҿz !ک:ʖ6J1PE_7e8ڳ5kȡLJye$~|dc[:9P0'_V (.Gv$}qV\ُOi\uA[v'QFD<Ș,rEtv3|TaI:P|vcwij+u1wi9B eVҟܠ"; }qҨio8{{UhԗǩT-J:-:C#uepvpW=:B8`ýg7^&).u.MUS"܎MQ~`,'J6#WO/n>ZQ)pZ8CQ8N'  A@@->co}cj1ңzwv9Ӡx#lCG5O!?(h獐+Ѯ">iw&vhm`߮j&>pz[.\m+5x.4gvW*x5Ht۴iMeS?q i4m#}#E\x^R[[$ye;F>ՕzTү(dG~ ayr}|^Dpy8?Zմ#.6%Ċn//>c^e6goYS XW\:3WnұtWV)8<Ŋ:gn "p8H"ot{{-#ff8q@+մ+NHoi.VUPR5q^i@(x^%Ɩ!Lki\ut/`~ !9sX1gcehݏ!5KjQ}ԂC9Z~f5YD[ڜ)J"Eܿc2'$Ei0Y'Bkiխ4+\G_En QPQwf'o޵<1yj1]Y *41uc7OC,/ʀn^q E CpIN?J7$zh>"QI>bBwu}ԘdUk##X9Jd L~P EosFԽ eA]t(R ABS\H3jn^S) '2THrdTdһqLրNN=iԶ-N*/Z $dZ4p.UP{u5JS9]'JaxrǽB\Br)h$iG9֣rgB{"u6zx<xKY, }Wh~,VmBW)N}߸X%HWMONwsY2ACeyGwkxA}$ٯ!lpT0'Mg="ʎ?Gɴn$5QH =N":";}k[p'#КM~iͤHs]gIZct#Z11ֹSPx'?t;ۇjeIe?]g%fU'K-3Dۃ{%WX11ʸ#<rNAsw["\ F'ʻ0L;{JձY#9zף|PIYOٞSpc`1'9ٻ%D .(b:Q@ :*j&:V8 ܎Mmo" *}@:R;[ ܞzI/29n0V`ӧt1GoIziKp~{~օiv6q(\{Uu8qR\rN3rwGs$f$wb;y$H]#aNoN)ygnv,pMa˲]؞%Mv\ҁS%KcPdըW8jjY:/J l qR*Ljf#NE&clˍݻ =vj^NXɃ+fr9Zu:V>imĚgtQSGGkϯI?ynzT*8{nl(z1VzI",-+,i6ΩTIfZ!Afslw'ڽžCW˷voZh~Ф&Zbyf={R8m[9CF5Mymj+s/9-}Mm'5?&%dA+L[Yu4I.h:I>,NoLA'5RA\{Y c"YxW\p*q"yPj`64S4R!hfSWu!JzSGZV# tnZb{k(ֶo:vZQ/ڸ+#5,w`jQ ݜ?Zuغ2T#* IjaV1OTyT^?W9ּ_#*-7Bq\\4D/!T0ъweUI쏝^k+hv[ ]3\|cZEr!+д=GUSPj mرyЧ3|GL53 67@{v?Ҩx#]N+|5OgQ6s֏<8}Ӏr9?545IJ݋4f.fZP(4Rh4S$?(`v)RЀQ֦^25OcZQ ќp)Sj\c7k Vx5hmz }}zYi6zf@rb>w_dXu WJ{|OHVmZ%Ij0T僎Mr.Y["nHG:Ƶrݳg77 hxd8BTm%^}ϵ}ZyDSi(&ҙ磟L-1TqR$yVBhG L$|SuFD(i5LÊVl2/HFyԱfc+_IpakZ4'UcZihxR [$zty\OoZf6g#Ǫ fCg:4V̟)E\Z~^fe@QO^:q Cx~( fRzz}om-Su#R .v&#/k j1Ʒ2#1=뗛E]YtCmЏ}+屃I$SDHuK^}Č*͸C)8V)wC]J *ŵפ沽fhDD>̦ke=]~flz܌?xyqV34Z^0mۛrc$noV\QkPDS1Fi-6jXYSή\OicWުZ ͑MQWLROg͐Q&4ThASW+8T^5'jБ H) C- HE PyR@GxZ]#+n%7Q,3ʋxW uTs&qGcD=<8 0 N^$a'U-uk\Q0A&( Ԇ)d$r{wҩ{4Qc $\N!@^t-gv *$W˾eDq+n'"uj3*5 ҹ635*fks}Y&vBƹ+u!!TBn\ I\sOhy54u=O <ԉBrIO5Sb1gkMcVVR MiE{DV9$Su+t T8jpj6STUE=y5 'pA_[;qLnFi!IᜒTb7( R3}9UzlÑ9_àU[ᱭ/-o. ߅]QtlҰ4H xHלz7HM >Jќ[jx +#"[o@/,*wEIٞ45FW bH)GAukPCZ^oQ&sҹSN[D!¢k<5HQ6s(^>8c =+B 0a*얢s>%dRm$cWxij]_K$rI^I+o,EdàB;we,2HkF 99!4}#Z0?4G:2CdEZ|v1Y*N牛wRUI"#׊ğT׸|PnCoq84_Ý](9 mZ R׮qV%TנwZd>$a2+qҨ|CEw*\Gk%(ܹ"qlDs^%r|= wt7_ѭ:zPj8I# iT;::T$J؞qP݋̏@֦fQ?8#WlBp3:]];WFW8тW=G34֛ _Vmu,Z|N;Zmq<2/p$rI#ֱ΀00Qoީ<&;֜{|[˅YEݎ2.mQdƯ}Tϗg3)6y7덚<(_ï!5?9cֳ|VvOb8#qe]^]]W2`objRy$r芻{נ:IU>Id S> d ^،u Σi] +TFf+YsWҬ:.,vjoԶѰ}sxk%{]C'JNmVh}֥;Hƛh1[p|ujdm> {4CoCO50Ois@ST5FMMZgR\ZOSl]QNsЧJ?bG_UkϞgKzաQšӝ6OS#.uo)O zθtn J+L(':\gn\TnXьDMCktLS%-!@8H4ojL ֦zƏRB:Ԣ>sO)`>Шڮ4@k:1hDԚ2#*Si.x5?E$b+WtRd !t|v4  JVqUժEzۚƌJ4+1gJ+ܺl0?燿ua"\2÷OLs#8.KKS5k6Vt[Ue&טV)=-MſE8(gסBnC`>Go$ڪOo2d$p?[dT[<4*=8Zy9FއK2llƒ/U=Oе3ׂHM!{q}+ctii|D=~-\ x2_f=%YV?#5JWo2\ݏPm.kV@nxW2ҹgljQbx9D#_}ehv:-v0Gh0U8lxFb$ܝ٢(@qV> 2oS[uTQjp$Vl ?7Ӛ E#7n\ck|j$lw>U  Rbc%Sf߇n#-=G+Z߀z<[%b בn)l}(:TTw"E޳|@|0q[SGPV>s]0ՠlOa?&]7Y'f6\viRV(C JKʯJ~] c5ΊY휮,>L%K]E5I5&vksQ!ҠcS?J 6xۺ Xg ]w7Q p:;?{4$0-$0]nju<¹ֶ^=EbH8rIV/(4Ӷ)xSA'4A:⤨pCPs{Vlc{ӁJ #tT!_Bޫ&w7WBzM(IFSQHHn܎E 0jEWVsW)("UksGLM(>*h`kGj}o}kBI$oJIylCaѬv04٨iw+h_|T4? +ŦG' |$lUԆVW P?: -nF&'\8< |H-,!H(F. $sEݞi^wu#1 w[5-JyFǩ9Hq& @<~U凃YuY GQMFx MH;Tb^winXj< Sc^`CC j*8v4* M.wVhbq}]ko *T`Igk (`*zᔹQEQEs8Rd,EI+U pm,@׌uL6OϏAڽ[U[;)&v =kOE4gjҍ)D壋hl-:kq\5*gbrsUqBYpz҃Z(ڷ%\ֶ7SBVBQg*ZyM\]LV&W0ـ5id/Jŏ&-u)(6Sx?0G#領e@VQU緥[<*``dĖ1QӸ_huk}7Gvڑ=O6b{^ּK=E 4ꊙ2Njw>ZdufS?,[ %Ƣu"+0zoe#@Oo\q[#ЍW>R)`ȁԎYླHݳ-mB+jyc16j"w+I/o1O>fzlē}]%CNlz; ^JȈڀݞN 换qBT+NPmnEM&*9llhjڐRf1?H TXhK-;l-fK')$54f\flvߑUb446= }_>Lc>K0*?|dgG=Yo?E4}rvAqUol%z5;"@~}Џ @vƺ\wwʀ :.TdҴLG/E96B50q &4+Ư@&MoFCS_1w#9|&KA[ͳBMW՝Td徔8\QL*fC͌m4sS*@CJ) (1‘=):҅1ȪkȮZEKqJFնF5R6j[kC7 ϕ)[2PI8 CI݅LU@S-I!v5gw.oTgĚY^sȔ4Fk>b:;O~=+R TG \ v4!$^!:iqIh$TPW6u!~]}73Ku4;I,YݎI&vGi多XrzwY)c^y Ą w_n~ͤKO:ô3|&׼s:@HG%8z=M}ii/oķIdg3ݏs+|!KY(#ǰ ~ŜM+1YTmT'ɒg.I0ޠT+!CťVY̯mXxYJjJPg֯4|- PgҽU-(J1C[mѮ<ΪAQºӲhzшUc\'X|/\2 `]},l?>jdp\"~l+Ҧ<ׇVaT~5 \ dhz }ߧuI*I$+r:@kЊpַ6/7aJ\$Ebk{"}uv^`~ggCCY"VBQhʤmfpx ]־G/?댟 ~fk\m|u?Ӵ7ZꄻpHEz JMj|ƛJԙu!L&*F;4ILsC7tFVԧ)ߖG.Hܹb>Xf=Osj- 9^%L}$id/ pc;+nr݅C J.͛jdCmg kRFUPq0+GԠ, U[xs׏ΰFTՌw[qI@j)uB<𬫹R^ZISLĸoqX/OmH쏒 "&̣&Xka8ޛ^Zd ZY$%~5C.Jd04rAc(TúHz]uwiҢ3]F?zMǰPx lG5ikw^,q47E>jx,.BaP2r%5^ծ,Y'])D_ a_Isj"(>u5v>U\Dou$t}3O|-a뚲])ԟ`q/z6ki. E!ǚZE DqHV#<IHލ>vyudvprsW1m8vǨ+BLu0C c4o%W=LR*w<_-K?ֲ\^|VvZJ)7"N`EwZwbzvI4.=\vBXqflCq 6%c_5αBl@eq^vxɩIAMsT3/84˔2M !P:R[pV溯wb Aui7J j쬁0.S;H&s a<Զ3R򊇽<(LbIi3Ivi L-urXW`*&$814=ڜ rqUSx8mYn$Kk E\cW5VOҡBKhV:C_K~̾-֮;"$ru?,-#y _z4bѼ1ak#GⱫq:G>jYmҊO*xGJf(`Pj?^L׏}oÎњg*z KX>@)kG0QELKJ)4RQpK@ KM8S)˜ MR$BHܮt^a8袂nN>ergݠuz3R56y? ZcSj:,[sR ^Ͷ3T.&!)QV!`Bp:77Kz⥒$+$P8FH8Ŭms̿n؃9mje=a8r(Mg`vW6,洹x2Fi()nI鴸fmox 7K7ڕO^”@e1'|c܀8>u<6ɟρwkɾc.W'n#hzTPn 5Z^(0=+Q/vEdlbVt# d{T7Ԥ{&Wq4$kcruddVsKA|n+\׊A) XnkhiN*v#sR'j3e;֤FE0})$14C`H&zRC`8RMBho@Fi) ȧWfxQ!jGKSU&5Y#Zj@ߊV|;m\bdsASu? 4@fWſݘhHȉ P([Fؐ%:[++QuqZc&Oѷ }"B ('dVL HFjT3ssi܉3NҾm~ڔL8ٹ-5ϺVJP4r9ڒPk)))h)h4(() `=MJsT7ZmHS2e=j*;HO:HC(5ř9`;J[o #ҡ}ndkAF;BVt}bX#W^\HijTXt ֱkC-А%,CJϻgϴjG(_d/%'54XOmy|@󚍚[>Z_zy 2NNziWsԭVχxE%,{UPpx9qf4mJ[kitIH+)Rϧ㲞WI-bԀ N 1GBj8ۀjBs] CSTCR/J FyFjn cBXr9c4: QW`Jէ"XP5N*J@ێs{ HX;Ҩrx8qUa4_\LzAG f5W߳+J,bOpbSV R@Avb5jj_ɐEcZBw]tE-hHfSJpS@:S\!uY3\kloEhּlzω3>ҙ%gS5&B3li1 @ ڒi@4RRQHQ`&6oy*Q뚼:xn@֑f4SM4*5Ff,xH8ɬ3[ }]L+ӱ-Mdr5!Fʒ [K sHXM/m![Gq*/]i$6d[(:ƏzEʫ gv>Dॹ*;d7>|sއ8bp}5bXd[q\dQ,) 0q>MrlnNtg+XXwztVܢт:|iT|"ly?JJuz?ZźS%̯#*oR^:x]L=hm[oqrSRTUR;u.))jE) 3uc3ܠu`$ßݾ<\$[1s 0\LU 5f{><㧘Ұ\.)SRSȦ@Ioq5nFCkVDd &;Zk*%.3vgSo9~6ۚm׌1\ oryb1y 4čg e :d$S2)O(Px'>;HZXZ%Gh2>*sJ;{m9E &)4Օ k ;*pEs&L9X `;{MOYkm s?^)4+u2Vϕvy~wB¹Ti{zaOm75A3@H 8(L@RQE Z(ӔK@iqQL#kA;1KI?61^*;&ngos㊽[{B1Sj@2em88#ہ!31F(Fjt8sj\S ""$ӸɠFB(IRiJ))W! *F,3ڛ1NJ6{m ,)ZQIJ)j!R PRSHh)TE E&)ƒ 4M46 % 3( b85(jO#jԘh4D -.f; y@S8H*(¤Z`xNҔu$q)٤&?4,1E bLzff@08-&iW}/%ꗄ}zD׋_g2G3HW Gy3U\I3eM:Aʎ_kkR}X_,} mIkso*ehFkVH3)6-q\U!&[Yɭizږ/|$H5)x">NA5躌mdQH!*TVIUsZl5T־v+"[ HiM'J`nL(4P)u6hP(RP(iE%-0*D85RZ}+צz\Y' 1t6!_jYOk-JEGYw˜֣tⲎ)'ޕĒc0Juef3nkNMwZjS8o F޺zsN[lxfq=y/"Km*sZ%y]>NԩJN \Xd\F9oI^RՈm!i` 8ut ))iQ@ E 4)i)iN/5n+N* ԊՅ1.m6gpw紶;9%Et<],ZV- 4[hQߴ8 yoK 7-ǵX*ƭWW2DY4[qQStԚ\|a-mxֳ&9F*yks4Sbp"4b{|sENOdT4 >iN|s?k78)QM54mEe9wԇrfQַIb#?oԇtWk#ibհa7RAmaIĊ!M[+]c|ۯjfasVSiX鿹;QZږ((Z)i)FʑƻUfvEaڱ)Ċѳ$UՊԯ}[)i L4L4֧PE #4 "iƚi0zөĢ)b؀Nj Tb4#uRcJldM͗ iɩ1 -q6v: -}FF))QN֜*8Q@ zSE34U!yz5 UY`+BFEVqdqULL;5p5^qkf%j)Y |]KS~or ֺ\/&z20]kį]l~~jopI|4Ěd9?Ja,:)!wsU5;}6i3#Bb֪hЦMJ)E1Ni¨Ci@ KEX)RQL HQ)QK}M4&t:`±K3Ȳ5z#~UtF  6gE%ˆdv|GDwVC@ⳕ+]tʗ5fq#udȨ1PHB>TqYבl|ם[;fPP *<#@1 ?SQz hmSCo\f(UWu&vrH8@?w#APT7@+3c88Ha=W,ޥa( k8T-<ɦ!i&%i\O|3Z@W3i\u2Iyo8Uv߈"$+44ͳ (* 0IV44i iM4 M4iQE JPpr))hwJ)GQ@Hɶ:UldݭWb@NlMT!E`-@hSV%GE`j9Y]|e:ܧr$<@$81U-:PŔCW*ŬAS 5jjccpƢqSMĆ~֥2zV]-YְdzNb?JU`>f|?]wB᫢wsϰGPkyOk!lcȬ$92!HRZFno!`9]sA NԣQ83VSHbԣCBKM 4S AE[Y5a4.irGpMhh5i1 tb+'Y:#pZweLtI+5P0^ͣN1e^S\WE0:rGSO_ƗzA6Љ)O40J3H*m*9 QFܾn;^TW{N?6?C\!@½Or7`ldG7OH[j[ i0S)JR@N@4.cO{OWV&#ZZq7?Xs Ƹo\tN.Z*t~.tUHGþ#ա0*^nh+ !?y4QVH9"ALh.#AEHAHh Bh%w4QM-"bll(dM#z5VŲVGR5-JLfFh( ՠw. P#Vr.#0C)E z(3W/1qJN(31}bpN=hl'-. v, NJ($)i 0cQHecz)E\qwd' A5rƊ*ra%E UF{,$Ƣ+>Z( EPKE ThSE(((4E4hƚaL4)( J(1E8QEPVc"\FhCJ(HC֟Eb (ihSZ( ?+ekq'%#BQQWcףEhf7Zz]:bێMV2n"Dhj(@bhn>cJȹoU|]D:QERL
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/RTSIE5Q-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

CASUALTIES: Erdogan broke down in tears at the funeral of a close friend of his who was killed by the putsch.

Turkey’s coup holds lessons for the region

By Shadi Hamid

On a Friday night, just a day after a horrific attack in Nice, France, that had taken the lives of more than 80, rumors of a military coup in Turkey began to spread.

It was a reminder that even the most unlikely things can happen in a Middle East that tends to follow the maxim “if it can get worse, it probably will.” Nearly everyone, including senior U.S. officials, were caught by surprise. Political scientist Jay Ulfelder had put the probability of a Turkish coup attempt in 2016 at a mere 2.5 percent.

For all of the ruling AK Party’s faults and President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s intensifying paranoia and authoritarian tendencies, perhaps the most consequential victory the party could claim was the neutralization of Turkey’s powerful military, which long considered itself the guardian of Turkish secularism. The army had been responsible for a steady succession of coups. The first, in 1960, where a democratically elected prime minister was hung to death was never too far from Erdogan’s mind, despite the passing of more than five decades. But it had seemed that after 14 years of AKP rule, Turkey had finally moved beyond its own dark history of military intervention. But it hadn’t.

Coups introduce a dynamic where there can only be one winner. Coup plotters, once they make their decision to act, have an incentive to fight (and kill) to the very end, since failure usually entails a harsh prison sentence, or worse. In countries already wracked by existential, winner-takes-all politics and deep social polarization, coups, especially if they succeed, are likely to provoke ongoing bloodshed and civil conflict. Whatever one thinks of Erdogan, there is little doubt: As tenuous as Turkey’s future remains, a disaster—one that would have had ripple effects across the region—was averted.

In making sense of the coup and why it failed, there are a few key lessons. One has to do with the importance of norms. Despite a long history of military intervention, norms against coups have entrenched themselves in recent years, including, most importantly, among secular parties; among these are groups that have a pronounced dislike of Erdogan. This norm shift happened quickly. As recently as 2008, Turkey’s Constitutional Court was just one vote away from shuttering the AKP for “anti-secular activities.” The idea that disputes, however intense, must be resolved through legal, democratic means has spread and deepened, cutting across societal and ideological divides.

The country’s last successful coup was in 1997, when the military forced the resignation of an Islamist-led coalition government. The Islamists of the Welfare Party, an AKP predecessor, were unable or unwilling to take to the streets en masse, allowing the army to quickly impose itself. This time around, however, Erdogan and other AKP leaders immediately called on their supporters to mobilize throughout the country and resist the army’s moves.

For me, Friday night was a frightening moment, presenting a key test for an international community that has had a checkered record of (not) opposing coups against deeply flawed but still democratically-elected Islamists. As I watched the coup attempt unfolding in real time, I was reminded of the sick feeling I had on July 3, 2013, the day the Egyptian military overthrew President Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood. We have the benefit of knowing how the coup turned out there, producing a brutal outcome responsible for the worst mass killing in modern Egyptian history, according to Human Rights Watch.

Of course, that Turkey didn’t follow in Egypt’s footsteps does not mean that the country is in the clear. In 2015, I conducted extensive interviews with current and former AKP figures for my new book on the “problem” of Islam and politics. While the coup attempt cannot be reduced a simple Islamist-secular divide, the aftermath of the coup—with Erdogan moving aggressively to crack down on both actual and potential opponents—is likely to exacerbate ideological divisions over the role of religion in Turkish society.

With the other Islamist groups I’ve studied, including the Egyptian and Jordanian Muslim Brotherhoods, there was always at the least the pretense of sounding conciliatory. Not so much in Turkey, where some of the AKP figures I interviewed openly expressed a raw, bitterness toward their secular opponents. For them, after all, it was quite personal. Most lived through the 1997 coup and the so-called “February 28 process” which aimed to deal a decisive blow against the broader Islamic movement in every facet of public life, particularly in the educational sphere, with the shutting down of imam hatip religious schools.

A senior advisor to former Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu told me that Turkey’s normalization required “carrying Ataturk to his grave,” referring to the still revered founder of modern Turkey and the architect of decades of forced secularization. For this advisor, the scars hadn’t gone away. He was still furious that his wife, because she wore a headscarf, wasn’t able to work at a state hospital until 2014, despite the fact that, by then, the AKP had been in power for 12 years.

In short, Turkey has a long way to go, considering that questions over Islam, identity, and the very meaning of what it means to be both Turkish and Muslim remain unresolved. But, at least for a moment, observers can take some solace in the fact that, as bad as it still might be, it could have been worse—perhaps much worse.

Shadi Hamid is a senior fellow in the Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World at the Brookings Institution and the author of the new book Islamic Exceptionalism: How the Struggle Over Islam is Reshaping the World

 

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Post a comment