The Curious Case of Yemen’s Alliances: Saleh Vs Houthis

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?MFgKՒ't w}1j+cNyr#+;qڼgRqcS3`99q=.t\s֌m Hk'|Hy.H " LdqSm܊sߚrOqUJ>F54Y-i?3gfqƼǑX\u#ooקL)S kri45W7#x%A7־4ы <j[yƒqUk3&1ɂHC'֥{Hٗ=;ԩmc#2w(fNJd gՋ\d8B[آ݌RJ/>4tȦLꬻ}R#CO@f>o,+^ؘ.ɭLp+K)NJъSa߽b .}jVAF7Uin6Iw.TZ\Fmxzv&R5`VE3g+I>8?6*u&1@ ;*T2S4]hb>dcՍh֐v!!(&LW3^?8$6_qqR4?Vԭ!Qz䏡+9InEx-sRh"30#Z.]]g ພEC b=[O0!4'OҢ1pZ 3(-^ᗆH}cWUcekXkco¢l#}83'SPI艩^iɴ,*LpsT?(֭,x#&2u'ךxd:Ʃ&_>y!)\s,ʇQRVfN8?:B~|څX3z=Ꟛ I?JvU8;[ԞF**Ukʫ,]]E\vw 5HĖ&}^~lÙin12HM+F?ts OL)~PHϭ:q><]K_Xyb[8~go6o XY&$O3yXkK9iHzua]Q^eyYng8?*qY[˸KבSq28W|Ĕ|V*峨 .V9 U[e8y{)^;vPbc6qVc,k`8D d`9Y"vګl/ F˺D$oJ_'+8݉)pi0n6O8RoP@sWeD)G5婨ɳ0k]Nc3om 1o2}8Zz,{"sϯ5[+ ձrzt$,=8U|39UtL;1ç{WiW]sQZK&] N9C,av8d8e#؊N5 ˣScn`f 3EA F b7m Lzⷮ@Ô\]i)p.nNkO[W76{3'd2Bnq3OSJsS@%4sFpmlknJR\5 O ')8aᇵ;jF$2z#Hѹ$mG'i [e91 9i :w27\8Ji䂤3 P!lB^Ԛ|\m59hw99~;OX-bw=^E/SoqQn!2r;־EGxP"PU~7Pei Y3iAU튿4#pjv$k䓹 V aN}V<, &OSV`e'%GR!n ܂H>JT+;$* 0ZvSp3޳ dڥ;fn3X֣n8i٨sy* +/LVn`3VmEQ*M[c7g $b̘/I}L~/hJ˱^=`i_ެVI! ۪aϽwOj|r,H#ڨ:mYjSk*ZdŤY4h2}Jѿ!:>h5jĖ$z20"8k h AB[׽Xݡo8w g^O մQhUu iaIR!)T_ZOZ7d" (rr`3HTs̋g~y%uuxPs&ztr%c 1L$l0 5u @h'Q]s9rmL]tPF?I=p(;Ş{hmٛzdW5.-młDJWr{G4 ? BW-qwu)8Se.2;einm:yB*4_7~ 656xcJu^ 5K8'nr!qk㴰$@]vytHnHϓ2oñ+` pwzx*Pd)5gIN Fwi8dB0RPh c< aG!qrܪʀxp1֫Fx5N~Sfw"kC)rX›4\>AU7damg^HsQZ|t6WΘABr6\A,["E`MsW<1o)?{(lv})%BCn_VZ\1\۱lGž34hjVT1p=*m5H6A4 Os*E cs=I\\Eim,J]>'|JԼ_w-2}"7*Fp%JN\?kҴ}֦Lq*?ۼ^Rk|;5͕1<U(irc+J}Gaŧ|<'j_0]"e)ajӚ+,QHkFWcܱ 'fFF}kޥ"MFҰ)-@)3m!I ~u[y-]g$U^TJcCV+׀,ЗBZ3?ýz_|LW6c[ RWocע\yb*?}8[cŞׅ%q=* = D # ~ё'Z{ZDkqSڐRA>#&@_ >9p$q898L`coJO2H^CaNOi@޴|Nr%qX (|{Tdu$SLЀe~u}ܷw ˿,T s)!#=1QH\ж%E] U_ʮѠkJwU}:49Ԧ(ԑ)N:9a;jbBdA t?RtTFi5ʫC:daN%m s¼֟S$/l/Iial&@dhG G#LSo2T08ko.u(:hϗ]0F>pL>5Ν}tn,[3ࢹ<{u>Qv=fJ| d'oXEȆE:3tIN;Y-%Yr r, hv@Mv* | Oi++x[k} mwMn;A/"Qb2wsVИsѤ2AoVBWbUe(2\G4䰙YW扏v1V&u&G{bE<^i9"U95Kxc4hK8'נAFG҉4-Ò#Zl  S E#sۊ&e-#'=sW 4䈃ҮK Dmqr*csy| h;گ/J6r7Mc3RݑNQ9Mw&t/0X>o<;9>x~m- c]O;fhۑkf~u*!4+ʍB)8ǠG/2:]_e.Jhz>ZfeAwlՓ@kn9 ӚZ\$ncld sgUGvz,*q‚GSY6HXpqXI]X9.Múo!I$A_Z=֋~Z)c#z&mb=>Q,2HIv* zdg!A#J@Ѫv>~]c$pq#1*$&0Wc3]ng{ZE,p*9ZOOdN4GXߙB2Vqou^6 qwÿxf C˝A?{WsDgNk~ x“2t|gu%fcV4t>I0QALG|-5nqM$(AE>WWY"A5 ?vihFp}8Īm+!rԣ{A>Z; O)5ʥqP4chК7ЁBI?J,7+Jx&bEbRK)Leb gح8OU)@AuS#UԹok U\㊔ɸp3Rk^a"'S4`v*—'>9ޛ4/ȸN{{آ|Yd;=q]J(*"['Y. %ge#mxPx>'jk(!sPA w:ݎw:lHJ+yf$Q# = oCq&;6JnҸ3*[TӁЯ[95&&ډUCPt#ۭzW^@88pGcYo$X(? ltԴlkafNהՏB8-2QNxb+/џZ:SidFnY#7=+9$ӛ1k;U}ĿFa8HWֻ)^EY.n1Kk{l wheGˑՏ::kEʒM{T" jW&V8c^nθQB3뺭/kv}#eZqYMƤ#gU(zpk~i{dW&J}FPf3:WVIŞyS@CFxCVa+!MVowcǮ)d8&k1r?wZtew.TOZ?_ʜF%;*e9BT&9PeIQ+ քоbV*!OAc8n¶{ӭ>f#֩qJgw:19*FzT JXf<V6e'`@@^p]EbQ$8.l*0oGem Vgf{U!XsWLqSF{F-ЪpjU8$keWB3$*SRq% ǒ;ZLhCw'i%"A ۥR\h R=Mk^eNf5X7Pr*tgelKgҴ0GcJjeJBNY ~p\QKbK%VQV`h85V%*sH 0'(Jq*$pp=$>)' 0N?2w:+[#'i}SXVnt޺?)Y7tpz; 6s-,[a'`_=k{[kD2WM3&y$":Ŏy2rTJ$ !dq&-L>H2h,y8_DAiNHס-|5V,G1e^爮q jŻq_w;\dTھm:!#~u-Ͷc˽>0>i"]u#hB >U%O^[:.i N7۶?]k+=#e>v5zf c|;֗59"ΖL]'@E箥2y^CcR7Aޔkgޘ~\u "nyUu˘^^2Fh m:0=B1ÕR[hR2R?Z%;OificF=1N <m7u4'ӕBt=ib"\^;w-HtP9u(ZM%jnH`2 V^g-m4BUw7 XkcZ 4weუ %Xt8_7XSbW-Ֆx]gQOEyYnCx&ȉoxMS~Q'F:73!tn#:׸~Һ'u1Ā&q?x!צiTu4îv>a˦_1uWc;s^w?&0H5ni7qOc4KՇ@־!^ Ϝ4 p6=JsF.:@iCtYdKr7C&Vrjt-=v$F =s֎k ]V#l|n#&2!v3db8qUm)m-Ү߄[2$QMv*_HVAyv}Q9ϵfYha~r3p:]q|S Ewn;8׳ d^a?5)kjvק񓱀泒V&[uav-bv,S?65HقME$U,[rF1ҡ:TȌ .v,VᗟZV4gnV_5Hoy6d} }+D6ZMmK"|e׳~FN5?{S6G^[֫=ʇjQ8`sxĭ>#z S>.0-\i  ՒKFKAC+np@zM]MY$48n5 ߢKcO-b^}y!] xI!%kGǯ5@WxQ {X~qP\W1o|՘6$z&#ч,0;-!q֮b lBԟJl9J13.>ZIr$POq$2&e/y(`p6OBRs(&$dI4Qglq˖LQqt4-$ⴑÀA\]jۼ J imk-Y\_1̸rα(犡Ic.3f/,gЛ]#qVR4"9ۏx~{GU!RwPP?Nrw`#5Fa$!HǥX1>W*zd8}~MG*NƍEИè4@3 ?Wk{`d8Qg AD@ d|"(8{ؼnt B?G^yWҸ:8(XGs@;_|EXҸAFtW4_5;Լ DFne\xO*(" "0WVěkcjVG䣤5F1j|n@" 1>: Z'+l}+./WP-/0*>X؊oگcۓF #ڶ77Oaֶ`L/-*nxvzVŭ6J0O#"UP2[ҢBR'T>(kyCl`|f̲ȯŤTk[Ɉ1k2p?: _۾ \Fe4ɛV)+\2(,>՘LJϐy~9~5 2kx>I]Yw<9oUQ^]}CDomڂyR.*~d#2wHڝÅUqct4sH򬕑3Wsҧ! p# c:U6wg76 PPi\`+TZRk2.qWR >\SEL[rA(tF/4ljI. ܟ((ug$6Y{ ZIS+)U;rpE@#6&@Ե PrLJMg,yUd2=hM*$T8N!9yPHbp; 2\snjJX 1s kfsNwBּނmnBn̅ = e֨LN=j(UI'^\z71 ǵR2alVuČ% Wzҽ.MY$'w1=9U9hLt}(j2%>`֤+iđvHb^آ-Q%acC')<Pȑļ`\%eK((h8_^=ռ_lәu;;ms胃7bOID \pd = }{pܳFE\0d.c#VkuMO}aT{ $$0c[T֯/y)DjYjQ;IoQI9']4{hD뱇vN} sy5{IIu 8Gp}NZt5M*>u {f7q IU 8 *uMoorB!Ǡ=U?tb9/Ϲz> zA%!y]LYot w2l+{]'i\/yC.sՋ9tNvo+Fsj8<5ԍ}>=4ί׌|/K[$K"<'#'k8fco{h%Vke~ +^'K=?2Y;5х#< XVԞ}:kȑw18q, ѐí]5&20T= sFiSə" ۏPsOW ^w q\/ӚvPܬ?w=+*Ƕgglq;ϛNy'׮ORX/4>ې"=J0n %Q3߈[EDԋV$$p]O˚ψW[^.M֋i0;UzDs'j>|!QVro<+FeNzWNjpM&"QDZ$2+ q?$&n ,I=7ճz? nSh<_"^]M_]igr䓓}msWtUGMj|,g @)$<=>Vʷ6>gd5 {h<)VW>Շ<7&G@dr+%rd\ Y^LjA 3waM(=z u:b5I.VoB Gi60ld7~JsI'G_8z'|BL#qKu=5͏Qo.PqJN {hQUaZ3pS]ԠRFx^֦^iI4m 2Q XuWASUclTx1\Gqr7(Ǯ+v;^ɷMck6q^ =6EhEBӀq^X3M?xqZP@ 42ڬ:jnu;w8q^Aś]GƯm$xxU+-̔9_n;ByHӵDTMX©Nk`>3E1e\U8d!F &nH2n>+$hY!N6`׭SVMr?h.)\@҆eydm@2H^L? ^,&E{0"*Ļ2ۃG5PRGҥz!҇/x1 ZyY<̏µmswD`zB ,0ڟc_F5b)L!?$h%fsM\ `SVp)Y 4(,;#>ےˎ-Bet:Jtw0YRDm1P4w ᰼9=Imdz YV97:jo] bquA*IWiUY^M63W,.ϭ[(X\֥;ORArk|MߴL|pEY4O!W;ח~)Yf2{qiOʿrzsx?L O_ҹj%BB2? 3Q ?5,r)e|E5% <Ay98B38'f=[:/]JFDcdӟqj̑@tW mڽdۏbyLѠhj+7mOZi X/\Yȋ&I\s<t4&v~5,?*ƄMG%Bz{Lt'4h:|pxf(k[34E;Ӻ3m)UT>!ZEw#iʑ9]W)뚧!q#ipɨ[lqpz FIhN1Yƒz!y$RJG|:{SycBknZ?̚Ǎ'_1e(0=*S)&Wl뎈 Re3V'ҚeXjyYW>n~4&?9_4=ZVdx*9+}Z^fӼI *>^V5?<=)nT~c_!j:Vsct(ڹqHr2H/uɭ k'Q3n_s##s+];qSgz]:mwnx x1_FO ȺqwfDr֑LKu X ̉PH$TrN;1^F&V5iw=|hMM? WV]$eYH+m$s!$( 1g{@\BM>e3jE͎iQ\eM=!5^BGH`2pQޱ0],#8确EŸa"yRHG xaҖo.=IQN*yAn*S Du uYlam C>ξ Upudue%tV(so,2+ڧc?Dypx*+-ʆ8+_O|m|ueO0r q|"0tnk[ؒ6~X|1/'vr9'ڼ$gmw^hyRܫҹq1ve?{xn9ns AٓXօGn߅qRuFQ#hM\FROʖN~4ާr]$HPrc\ΩsI#G?!x=N=+aiZ Ѭ!fL Y}bKJ6+cayq 8PFeۃtpM\Em(y(-;1^CJ(oj+\gz}%d=՜\ep4#+z g\dyRu[yŒ? KPzyMvxRӥ_>lyQ-#AF\]S3g|Q|36"˅}\Ê1eN=kh!uF3N` V"~"% fpº?]-].a*@sĄ b Ez,$ky#:0|xg eft=#sžcr =.ݔ^ZڹܰI0^pFO?lxUu+u{;[x9_uxMeh{4saB#{Q;'ylzE]Kif`#+d돆"B#\e7fwrcxºNK;sf3cn9M©+Z~+񅞑tz5h=^Iq[]ewMQh5(YB\=(*chvuBv]ZXg`gֽR] |l wWЗFkʜcUhR3}Xf9l櫨G, dj#+h&b/ڛ8#jD< ^(>xÞ ՅP13Y^yJX %RNNISGeyp2LJL w9K-v횧"ϰ!Se#ڨpWJ G$Qu4kNrMYIlXz}jyPPޕMZg115hL!"f[r'S:vnLq8<\3=wn1z OoYv HГKvx,ev;IrG'̌Vw:+Б4ܜy@-\Z*'k\?J.w+TsO#+`vc e _<~{}N-r߻{;0W?-=s@#B%Oc(+phh"KkMAD <Ǖ:TMQ6HH*x5JOͼSD7+F;WƺvsH^M_A| [luPIMoBk<~Z[QT1߸W͞;OӼUtbPÞ@w-nB-JGӊС:?=LMhB*-YKE}^D3G6tHBb܀nv(&zҨ{y6ȑ32լ:1)Ɣe-]t:],QZ>3^lb ^ayuw\#z~"ίyڄ1pP?+cOب$Ǐ:')=LI? $+u`?J!O#+{y )qpj,Yjz5]prucկXkWZqx;?^湝ZI~ZEexhΊeQ]KSzeC67j]h*G_Z FeKܿy{z{Viz$S.֍!|0w9ͮr>o5hVBRtQӎJRG㯅^OeMX Z<hHPab@bqiGqmY2';}1 EG>TuQ49FuΗciS-;f1g9[.T)`?ҮբLP9TIcܥ'FQuJhԥc&y#ծM$E" q]A>J&k@9=kk}^/0FePѰar9vȻA8"kb熧]w:R^t30[ְ ۟)vƽص#[Pi|w[D+j5#ȪF`^|q J澍 ǔd+_JЁM}g)úd3EwvGFrdOrsUpTRrXozӛS(WEEǽhZ#?ZĂO!pHkZ.N/Sds~>I3~dyk1vgpinn$'`*#ՠ]˓q(k5/Ft d0?m?1NKSqybB[QR HG`'cPũΖh9cYK fej/.ZҬη%y}jV6 JD,]gL5&h52]8Sֽ* p1\Pxev@R;`IϚzy2r3QZGc]IB|dR#8s0r Q;8X; fS+aq. K@9=MKqs"7;REwI ʌMj "h8kf%FZĖ4o'ڮGLl2^5(O<$渟xi|=F8=Bߥr>|nzmW=Տ3WbLp{i:lNػ~fxT/L \#~9uTySNIZ~샕.SZ\G*KHiŒRprs֨6IGF-unơfuX+Vk+s?ұ.*x{Rݩ 3RP b8S IɦéjK4}ަMz,})ʞb*3g^d!V8+kICcZAR>M楫ʊ!B;~#0E(voƧ[IQ:qp|f7UC_#_Yi͕(qiYVVXVO(+=ngug:|K]ͩIisǭZ YCoaq, L⸋i,eoviى\:X%{?º3徝Np$KNXfM7ޟ$lʸ}ZE? 3[KUc4zg5M>m?ȋTx?usy 7v> ȳTc~}Akjʝ>߻F}Eח Q8ih3ZFL,N8QEͼ7^¬h *Y) /Nv=초໎1r@8*Rකr;N[)E֥eO+SЏOZ3OP Ee0ORsxg4|WZH@ Xx(~ÏxS#Rdmlgq;p@YOWn!eH w H<(CzZo]y cksTt=zT'?z`w+H `U=u xĦBۂNq\SF|#´kM>Z<0F>b@W\cNJQg=`4#fu#ҭF` ]V^c1!h ~&"NZ{(4&MU\lj6Mq8 88)UKh{U\rs I0H`F@Zm^hJDs{,>-ZfS܌ZJGYi9YE@sfP6b>z«lHf%nXCWh乭dFF[+Fݶ;{\De+n&2yZ=lk;ź}Ϋ `I3S ojz+ja8>E*00y85BygqثxG+4|dߘXpXv.IA浴@ 0]/}LO>ؐ<>v㵷s&9Y>$;۞sr챷"]˶,PЙ2⡒LpO*@=*s 2hz.GRi `c=*Y [yw `CAA%5/i|[Krv>Bq:[aJ[}z/\֭QIԱcԚe{Sʲl99\&%diR6=;Up}4U ۗHO(6+gC/5V8 =z6=ڻz8b# /NoE1#9Oj- }ԗ ڼ#goVҴ.[i;*>֯(ɪK.]D]Fܜ}OSZ`WZK.D L c47)*~'i%qtU9rGa7b^)P '+VN;5bLlX'J/Wm{D_Á1]`ǨZԲqMd>-1|0<ѱ׶|gzU6㛘g?xspU=&%TVԀ&D1*ݫ,{䃚+Eg'Ml<*3g\Dq=|#e z-팞^zSrLWu.!^WڔphvwѮn2qNK'vi3H+ch#:֐sΩCX\G!MMѤ/U'Lb θ:K۩~{k I B=U9gI"n2#Ri5`MO[p]v(#'gW5* \V׮ᶡZvmm>yI#^`+˴[k4F hXp+rdg(ƔGcrz(43xg Oj[ffBL0fnk2+Sq"p+CR<(5$zI2,<u]TtqF9i˱CwdE}32,q?yuI ,dF E% jqƃ%̭5R8̠|+Kmr~;sXo ֺms ؼZ/@,g$_JAçY-y3D#@s;4POX6ڳ[" bӼ)K?0wz0{tǺhCУ^7yv$vܾdu!^"mX( bR1KNG}sVk;[9$Qڴ#UN 4ɏrX1yOqNRc9eC`8rIOu Z4)jnR%F)킹eYW9o(m4 :I52ɨ#( ȩÌB{ĹB(''ɫrRnX=%a2Kp[q,;NqYCjbH&"NGk;j9985,բt;X|vS_'kli$Q}IzEچkijEDg{׾ :u`7'Mz~x |-ڞ"7HȄN zuf(Q\eCulF6r9r 2+ j4[_i\\c @]֡ Y].r3x0y:W-Tf TXfKW+E lإґʼ70EYg4yVeJ#*mJHr9]HfoW韥eiWz Ae/IpC: @|sZӯđ7;0c$Ӆ՚2c ?JvHnU;2Vfw-蚔Nm}j'H{Weۑx{k޽rtvx~];yŏNš=$ 7iD+`'x*j[褑A]$&8OR)"8 egѕ-o-B;q^nv㡨E6gOF8"jm|z'TqzЊq׽}ii"ՒuR#>gW4&g2Iڬqs<ֹ*aOR:g'o:M N`pAMյ}CƛT õyq鑎j]3SM vVF8ts5^6Kx_[&c.AONxZm{ēXm>,(#flW^4XU*+~4xLZ%V"[v޽5:m^lj(N2{oFc[$ c]_un/o18 ~%v,FK(>+'mK;A`d ǠjtOԺhW2##mbMTڴ)]v\JUt=xV jۉ˓ʪă?y\頿w+nzw%]@^wx5!ĶDZFO9~g8sxLV]:7TH^omDiCnyyP~=?*7]Q 6̜o^MN $VL3>^KthNJq:΄Z6K#z44kggq-H޾zڌ8֬&Vy3!;4^xj).xnc"ĨbsⵧOiYd9^ǹ~KTS{׃|y]n2٘FpM{1O4tY 0S"<椚7~'&!UQJb''8,tT6}H-;"Mg+:=Qe"k! ~r`[D*YZ-( +hneQ^Ag &h1HVϞxKg Rmī^EϽ2׭J.GZ7_dFyoZY"JVGR†=B+T4I k-qsE/(6yK898Z؇/o.Y]̟M!6Oߤ"fTWAxTQjsڤ,a ^KLs!FF+u5m.(?ceYP }(h"sZ}}.q? r:U#Iu 8FhJ+ɲ]~psx~͕t9Ѵۭ~-tpMw$JO x'I)&99U+{M,+xaE1W&WE$ǰkr#2j ;u,w7tcґ_|#tw3~E6l99,~SX>85bHLQ8>´M-JN*ԒJǭHc?B@x4dV˓ zG:?)% p7s1C8ǽ!4C(/=)%FNj5B.{Ԇ1vZJQ={sA8ӸE͡1M1cH,hF+O?ZI)R!~19-sT!>?Ƽ7,WO+ ~&|;3ºds%\Һ)ۃ<=iR{ҐRߝ2F!1,GL{R3~tA’]Kr"5Fl[-m0w-*W-b>D\`{!7*hY ve<THD{ȹZλӿ٣U "x^u9W$w&pIqbE$$ d[Ѥvt1<2?񬂍|ATn!@S+`[ylq*P3ڄsZ@jqfR9ȣuղx_Q^Ѫ.Rt!YBm &'c(֐^4oqc6 ^[kze7Q+ӄ%1>wGן |uAflgR~C]|QJ&  }3ȯ5kMbN+-rDZ+IXٚ.*v5BK[3mo1G𫷳\[nC"ñ0bhR9!qD\A=3BL4@6qg3kq'%ct~98<5*)%)tU:m eGjtmeU#|De`x*m>VU(jM|O놼eF]ucž*|SKj j j>V"=:qVfꪲ3N{VYxnn pyPr=X4U>Ļ*XEc}JYnv9O|Qo?ͬo#r~Gk(l1ujo@-:;c1nC-YnSlOF}mM#[Fgq'Xg؊"8.T:AW;v!Pܦ`:Y)o)6'N+uahN-@Ubܖ `OұRmcURn}~]>ӂ_5Y[M edS^rr}>=촖8YG^YIيtuZ.DNUc^N/?t__e }[p^1/[y&1[BBM+< ;sN BF{udL;ⵜ%=\JrSp] ?J|7>Vmm4x(|!*u,#b7c{V涤>[u9Iqֲͺf_]O"Мu~]j5XR,aaxɉGve-+Nz2*&T#p`Ƅra ֢ϧ#E1Qoe֪E }*Μ4bV4sDFZ>GUKV5o]`- UV̉uf@p{fܾo4DmǴsTR5,KAfonBL#ԐʚT{xi -cK8B#b=p?#jvkݩyNL gv[׊c<nݞ<9Xζ3#.dKMFA{ّ7r t"A}oL<,vQN6񈮤${_zЂһg xx5/HYvvIlz S(`K8P;lĒ3۠ꫫV''?NIB 4GNrX~4 +V?Veۏ$R|sѧb@5Ǘߍ(,.<1[ߨ@ʢOظ{Qov{w2F>q=_#AF/|gԞkm63n\¡OVo뚕Eu'#5߇iKSϪ0۵7E\HxNd5]5brMr*sڌ9P͂(E=Wq\HFS><]-D<>|1^3x+2.E02?*R$>vu}ismz֚i6W;8dv! PcU(9y >_z:|;Ӛ d+Ǿ3$v"bZ=K\ 1&p :JݎUg{&$ʟ{jxa}IB9~Zll:#?YL-l~I?#y ;Vb/x=_ٞ0/[20tS_Hb^P7^92e⛸)Fx\ONg֮M Uncurnt2 p=#~,"?% 9>p?Mv:jC)Aڛ-9 XHA뉳oVltKrsb-/\5F'=~cE;mFMk9< µ)F;Ss2_rQ-^-_;@אOZX[Q7l>-pLĸ3ZC/kthcɖS G䣠+EvRH$භNCD]'UpSȇ$_EC4sQqU i+4:rq BHa㱫vj9 */nT.m$J}jL+Y;Y n-7n^8^EMJHu3VoN[pv8P1exYcjwO<X{8u2h֒1׳>#5k9"W?^1]ýq9]T]m^ ?i&>18Sr{T@þ,lp1V1THiDFgp)46 4 pnc+KȍGFp^X^3w0L}B[6/!h/ n;P3]N'bu co>|+] fӥ.NznTl/ƧB"b;֫I$c\ty'VL Y!›.95xu43#n }]+n:?U`:VQ1w2zg+)*\sNJtiq&I:jm庶 s|DxTo\ uB70=>QQ'\o\Qr6%@xt+SV-obkBk[^9bt5v4}^V]>S~7AFT=X՞>sppZ ըvěA1S ހa@)UjdS->ki3 Ky:<׾9V MCRbE7CN7l̃Iqˑ0M[՝B[aGFFT%R ~-4{mN+7P$Ճ Aa'MFIћN!۟Q[DDfsRUG4DMֈ͏'93WF!0a'V۞O]s*o\mV1y%yip}Kt\Q?4VEmZωvR6WH:^7u EeyBN\}j0] f"qZ6RjG.:|#iq,CiId|f@95/-CuK8DbF9?ZrTg927,5rQP0(:m}ݳ#c@>񯂬Wi0&OF::mIZ0ǐ7٣ŒIhCSsn0QYƷG⛭ZњcpeRѕ֑)CCx~$g=E2h m#+/|A #Ueܛ3G >ƺ6WkyC"3׫yqRGLz?=LnGZ?ިAiN՗;#.H;SXIqQ9 ]+*Aj0{Vjins¦%??-1nڟ?W?0G# iJS$Rƅlgiu!U1ҽKT]ġMɄwUPIZc$y#ClwI(]:iKu<[l;]\-irXG㾦KmWNpq€gc4FKfY8'5׌eB@ ob3ר_vc OC:H0Jù-Fn#+e (UY,kԘ0m0=h/nډm3ǿ^$ֺ;8 36pi.^Rv'`qS>ӥK C{O?+2< Pc'#5YRq5q&?:?Z8XwP*;Xy4x9Bbmbr7ˑ)ir&b8܅lRSZkHߜX{50P1PH"^sCXt?+ÐGֳ1VR;!fTs@>tx-VP{S55xy}AT9+w+&LӚ;VpX .h"2Ǩ Cj;IUw1U=`wdģ:q@헊mͰ qLj<;W-m"xl|k5[Pӭ/1AzPj\)JǘHѯvfl_ow^0n.=`x\s;T_BqjZG*ɔּ)t m = S 'SVzu{J(k(1$I!sS+j uq-o3;kOTnR`3ؚ{;0Y!=3z-R5t+7Yi1Xbx ^,%|Ay9%琿=x})@kپ1>&}v[ƾVSEGl,i4 }k,mQP0(RըCE]FkxWX@jd7w}Q]?h0E:-%BvA>xk}ʸc]C?*wM4ˤښhoxn]9ad}#] WUr“F;bFUߝn/G+.6p1ze+йRc ;OTڵ"3SSp0)8)<1֝g98?vG=(?kU,i I!8 zf\U$wmM(xړ1=}j=kԾ閫#4ד|bM8°`x,#q1\uzB F=SKcmO#>L +BrpB3]=*E}鏬YqsUĨ0?0/9G!=*wIC?uj : E'"s{k U -dk}7:#;HomԤt" inˤ (;}qK<CݼK.> s8j!*3$a{H%w*Ē suF'0\6GЎW:-yV_X+I]2j^Ȟ԰ ,nm( e$Ԝ o*?#dʪ q*C 6ZAѢyC>XQ6W)UA!ۃt,cñLʽDrS.Bր3t}B7۴<} W&B9cQހTLb1۵5خ;Є0݌fry/Q30td րbOԴ ȵ x!yT0CZK4ҬqF܀ROxO'<' Rm<zF4OCߋte*xY(W;r ݽ+ZK>o|Q84.e,K#)5xY76K6pߧ5t5vDYKNawms)Z ɨk}&CFT88ܤz+k-tv~V4Vwhݑijs߳%XƩ3ю^֮W ^dpԮEKNn̐\Uz5 Mߘ&mNunQY#xު4+No&7l1 _^+m.aXUee==|L]~/jHF|`ohͣX jYn>kZM9cHOҘceEN.p9HF0 pnri;S$\dܚP$UpC b""$3=)ILpz:{K>Ӝ);}q@İU{h3_c*4A֐:uږ{.23Y;%{ַtnS Iъn0Azh6Gc$Q6H 9ִڷmAClRk4t[TT ,;Ҿ*5|E >ܓS=YR4ڳPIHRR},%m![ w|D՜1C]7fL Y[W+ԑ5mds>=c匶+h2lj t|u#Bv^1ǚgmm"h%#ZoJQi+ sdXd#'o~eվRƥl Ue۴g:MMQY,!.$' !C+%h^5"UMek{3Zu4/"?Jab#R_=h- ))iM4(&QWvւIKRk9/GZ^ nq ixraoN]#p̣R&>Axw=_Ot{kh#9`iP3w y>nJʱ*c;t"4nPW m;cƔj3P_PGȒE"H3#w1,ZT_/fp̬z NM-p*:aK>!K,C,0Vt@AcsoN쭤IhC+8"_0cS_ZK#'2җ?gYKj|ԭbUA'r_:VFkn2'##yyig  DB@ݾxeyv\IHISDS+S[^ 8,q'J3ٸj Z?\br?vVZE Ļa rO^kvIs{q#NuKyJ6H8ҽ{I6+]F)V?t99u֗X0ҨYRI8W||.dԓRv\NMsTyo}NEɴH{< i XeXu21̉2( b'*/7-ew<7h_gǧ6>V>e !HeHhtsS-i,7eB BMf`(?Ϳ—f̮C8Pq³7}"YaMҮi0.Ts,E{Fk"pwHxMjFOYjv RIAOZukþ 9hdzq\燼--^E(";֏֍ pa)AϰAͶmڌwID/mqSJ<+>Lߔ,@#gcz&Zp"0 kvԄqY#lFGWbȘ[<rϡ!Aۀ1ښ yV\@ LC~Tq*i|iq@o gc~TBoqA?67yckTy$cqJI9|` oʌrjewK~b|#ӽL3#q #&``=M4<;scQ5*p?wrs@ ?R?QL Jwv<]pZfF6 W?Z<}]ܦ„tڟ U迳4jL=rI^̀n~^FKrǩ9iMSpp0=+YcHriJZJ˩`:QE  p%He$"KMz^}aؖWzSU4N5 1N?V**G'idimOQbKC'$֞S˻ȶ*xI}F<)FITn4 x؅so8|50x֨^ۻ9LJ졛}`B#5忴e$dO[Pt4wcMSRDjQGHiM@CKGj)%fQN6Q@kyd +Q8b1}\}qo4ssmˎb3~MO×H"XQ̾ۃA/ kopfEN+?}NEy~Ukˎ6QV#E$3|OWC̏|5<6 "NY܍`_REHIP:.gU@X<'AR1ʨSH~/ jHLS yYf^jq_̲[ǿl:qҾDU]ao.ʩjjE5esZHUB z4l0 b1^bMl_.,b_"'˹NaE?*LC[~HjX(Z j(6|2[vI63; oז-yPExGoUY-Cb7CEoXAzQF{ps,ħEgmaS &,b 8? c[:X{smrOK ց6vaEuEZ(ǵVT8E`dғF*=OFI'#4j%l(87'P{zRH,~S]X7ϥJ$^g) 8${Pds}).fK}YGUIt1 >鯦(g?#R{7?"gʱɶ٦f4!bghiG /2z(4d4+$e7d_c'oZEH&+XԀAjuA{Wf$TzG}YҡuFx5l7u({fwdLL)²zz^iQ=6A1z\=EZ7N|"tYL!$Os]<ɯ=չ]N~ 8lgM4naftbcsNLJRrĞW=K[fj•Q5>x[#~[nWlq@dg u.jX{#\1=;ի#I#S7)~I] 6\$HIr{a,d`CI8鞔U$ 4],W#?_n#4{Xw++<Ԍ֗`d#ݏZLt漞"! * n\r*.it4CQbR)M$ *@(ٓS1j:rD8?ξ/Z;=fΏ+ݫLfIR}TW # 6rcƮ5៴fo<s <ο-ɗ_lnH 8?jS*QIJi+ jF5z{_RLm4vQҒ:R5 ())7`-vjm*~g&n-!cQ+{Z$CG ?:Rgf%KFr{WM{0ZRCp;F9PZF֗ ICJsOJXP!( ֎k BH"15 g"@j |&NWH0Ap?Zwn7!RUv4˰v% 8N▚I~cSvYۊ"Ƿ,?²[`Rd^{n(R~޵xMM#6AVfkӮ.fP¡PqYWRM4XŲ\0`Ayh>eU=VX|D{qsl+&qic /_ҼVkj/'ga)e)ii3I9UԬ$[( B',se}.A֛I?yᶧӆa#4v ׉}?9o0e3tG+è:jogg>)/ɯ[|vlcZPa,Xgi﮵ [y--I*$ aمx7iK/n#ۼgp_KiZK[&I%,]]r{q]4*'4S(jFœ Rk:ԑm g$+Av6YHy7$I"3RTJ׵\h.zo\n8] ;Q/51ʌD[F4<1*fǰ9EVi[0pɫpܨA."@ )1H0P8  Flh-j_9lG0r\ُb75 u!UKgF p( 2ݱX8Wּu_[xP95-vpy~O[FNкgSR%5u ƳVzX9Ϋy pI+ھ ?Ⱦw?6vGu4FGno 8櫅_3BV;c;9km[k^>*<ڻطQjzAh3䥸y$z ;2* Aĩ9DN8%Onn%A΀5"[ZG$L 6@}\HIr:U9`bWy-SK˻KyX\SaroT8ةM>D|2q,sGO50k͸4(+Qq( [[)hsjn7~&)WQpG5$0WҢy.{9rWwPV\..x:I̟>qrHC^aG LI}k>;sk*\EDy*,3*6d{8w5syT1JJ!}3\=JVޟ3!X^FrZNM@M\r]KUe~ IvjuW3d2H$cF9biGܮ|ԝƚQi /з((ѳ08pSO+Vrpe9k궸6!tLV2W:F16MW/qϩP2Zj*4WqUbSZwT%+ݛSҦmبIEbߨ֕QB4bƝ`FFj:{ΘMP! JɔMj"Q԰}0N@E4۪Zgvjg,'[&@vcoz&˄EX*+ɣlOk]FU؀ #pz~Fo2M̝GrI5w aTt-??_hȢ&8i#k<u{٤U=ң^LunAXT`o_6'^{8q+ xc`h}AC"i-;I؜C* }Qk^[$e9WMǤ b=>iopٜ8tq6|Q50@I[ iBL"7Ghr -L MVq9 K(^pxU2S'Vgga"Tֹ۹H;vTBIFXi[b=:a~bO h%`?u6`#'K[6L{VZīs\ִ/-S_.o- 3(`Lނ[uL =EO7Q]˘mz?J׆eSOC;OYw-˂A؜>*+Ux$#>/Eslx]#\׼A֚]$A"s5sLHu<17ҭyNў,:f1RϞ+Soorxd+sߚQsjd|>.zgS/o'WAkC&>Oz@X(.yicx+/u]=턪\ x7-}1]t$Mn}?|ҔnYV|/6F8aMou?jU Nw7{c" "\C(嗓&^Q-4 %r? ϓ \ngl(SQ4T+IRy>=jNգyRwTXzE= WNYGޚWlFqVImQ" :ל(a5{L-]߼ pԵ=Ɲu\=AO\𮕨\ o!`̨C=?ʵc61>aODg+i(F[X6F8Wj*M*i@-\TW9S5EY#ƓM]$`v桓@#Hz =js99J^ъ|=/}Io#mR'm\'U{(v'F?#9'Y:ë-r8nۆнq]~ǭ!=;g]Q)K/ ½2G% ioP>jLt3 x7Ai Ecp '_XS/I)Pd0}<;$*3&TM?e? G[m|M}xF.eHKhf㿴4VV7O$Na%N ^z6ϟQґ5C [⓵@%-%HŠ(EPk#=5Y`V%}vϵGLshkJi7fLntKt$]V,2sIuw0Oj@׼~[՟vV?\/_$m+Al!b\8*K~$%wdxcDԵZ6Bc WvUS9uP5KA}+G\ʿ3`.mt^{8fʁ[~oM4L%S;ޤiW$QKYy Y|m1;d?=#F Q*dǖO2'IcXt}*;VA6m;`W\?ğvq.W9g7B2sjsKGwd_T[gA$~m"3nqI xZYu.,WV;41-+ֽzxT0VR4Sh\9,s1֡(MN@=UHե@WC:yJ/' qSOč:vX\0rx'րvRબR;׊)\njB@gsگViη O9&#bb|=S $H)+R˖J̜Āpg^]WC}v:sb4-$;r$Xz؜Krs;}iY.\43+FYG֪0ˢ\iۓ/\^@rT%ڹ8'ֲ$`.I,^1gcppBTtql$qѿjO-LI ZYUhfP u#U( ;-.rAkE5ƾuV~*W)k:O۶z nvGoIVQsx߄"Iku}Lf*>hp][5$N2ZBfv'`1B>A=̮8LecMis/?'#1_9|,myS}`X.&(Xk&tOhoT-/A'>Cbb 3V& NYN*pݜgR ֱLЕQ s֡'$I)̌ V"EHV>&,rҨ~o׭} 嵍T-Ld$*p֭-5k4R vvA p9T->o݌Uko#551 U˾}kqӡ;=+7:VQ ;KAϋ~QM4c,O=isZ;FdOvZ|>/_)!XXp Sw}+o*pu[LQP<'yAd򫏊L 8-U{cS 2u=#>VwLet{U Ȯ%~+q%zsN+ֿg鱩jh#ׯ%៉!ֳ=O*KzUi\Rh0ciAb#W:j?Q]6ֺ}2gؤdXYs>Ik?]TzZvz2]ps?5Oz}rYmafr>8 wL:EZoJ۸F+ʥesn\)(R_|GIb;6G^ur|*vV}+l g]au **>mҮ!˿  )U x6⧿&_ԧxVJgwlkţڙ],xD#x&8VrFjD,Wgkٞ|p9 Rx,XҽF<0[ Jy|L?Xwſoj][ۣ!Qjgm`N}}C$'s]ᵅ"AR-(1(ӭq9;#m.o&vs⺵DR5GSݏ%PpP\+G#o T /vToCAsV_٢9/6 'ݖ"yF+ˋX&izK`s L~VQFyj|I[i6rs&p>U^I>W4.$f,m ֶ5-B}Bp^< 0U<㩭eAxۍET 9-8K$srA)b[z~ه]Um Vg̎zzL8v[kM-v;{޲q2H1o,&0L?l.^HP.gdx⼓~6z&;%oŞ8WVYY#Pr6Fx嵔˵aVǭQsKo#eMM#QhYyKK+J):£G &ׄG5̉gl4lumnzkvdkjLq]*gW'uč;[R2?Q]h9ɮ0npWi(/m#aĩ%F+baT]09XR},MRъZ6ZJLcw[&XC`OB=+t_$қ\qWvgwzF9ݞ}IUI㕵E!HZ`yKf)y|&wIAl"?xMs2O,pfֹkMhuQe}*Ksڙz8-zo=Pne|#Gb[]H>Ht 3x]tLgFU<*Xn{FgC)3KFMo*e%[ gB+]xn$RnDʠ"X@yұ`F#9= 9f(S$RdP;CjӲBN{Rg}ne)S4xrIcZe \=)ѧRyiFiK eeK8qt_f\jپ0RڶonV4 JQ|SN4i(T֣UʶzF]VKGA{YrrŶQiV*EfbIE0 U`=xG)~ Z;UCn3xKG䫰#Ź?Aƍ Ql|i8,h y.=4)ߚ݁K S.BASk΅)ѭ=46i|֛`FII.\<,BY\wR;$`k89'Ұ\U) ,O һ_>lCWQw ݹ'j0WyU/wSĊ(91TU];֓|lɔAKOn߸Un=^"휐;9/ms@2RHȤ1f$ѐO›$eTw7lѨvޜt X׼tR=Zx^^ck{rpj)f.ǚ0gc=k+9;ZJ:ld3 D,k# 1MAc)~f47@cia_LZ/}+ nNW6gJ} 8[ ם|R o藤<$,x޵OS㊪` =)ʳm{sQ+^k=4>V.H=1R@J1<5cjD;a# Qy=j@q#MiH&$ uwPIK`{]_Xfáێ-?rMK-k33[;ň‚JoTz|rj dP PJ;zzɤمKA1V?hCUHm"Av>ZnΙ754KQ#VV7!2aaIȸ7R@8 ,K:lLz>ZiVJ:}h\ mnӞH Ge/4rVHX\\P<]'xEXɣ}#uABt! i_[S>t#߯ץ2[>O)Ho}]P&e+{wG˓gO٫Oftɹ|)S}8泮.<ѾF$9 !Ɵ4ȐG=MK2 OgT֤BU_PE@5}v ~|yjU (kiR}6|4 W\ӭi)*ٖ,2u()(|h6m*㯗J~3ȩ| -?V#JbrA#|/'zT"9FHT AS@<\˱UNsMb@9X<sJ N&O#꫖)?\!fжpFFLn :i@l1=P _=?P~u-5 qƹuAڋ@ <8dI+2 ?J5HԤkҶ l4}2PWJ@SVut҉=JtV T晿^*KsI1- }?W{X;tcCN5M [Dc:OrjdDnV(~4cԜd193CJ6HdeWR=#TOiu Y`>VVd8%Z[;'CTFK]Q>$Żw\V!$봑Ͻw֊|LWj8ٙ"MƥH>wbɸ:{%dWCd 2ǭRx$sWUٖg֐<[ǼVf@E`-Si[y=>b3OeuojF.;E+7bw憬mF6=8P\*dQHSǻrS%'v$#`usW$1[58dYd ɭT_KB5 kw A=o?!1E|֖V<%7vM2hU 0 p[q(0??‹ nN`OBheTN>AEEp5{\_RX¿JwLQ ɷ^6_K{oo F! Muag&&E3^{Lgò\u B9ͧc;s4A7{wtt5ӣַ\I7=E=g0jye!`㸜/jڭ.Ҹ,iv.I IHB3ȁrplOT[˦(N97K!S; CW. mRT{˟ԆB"7H_=*Ħ69j[h$1ȤÂ?ϭb5c 4Ju;fu;|#s bgOJ'mmSMKeoROY( 2Jn3"q/k9Svg}Ǜ O3a F άZOAz p>ug;!JJ2R[kkqT`#r>a[>&It1Ec''ڻb"Ih~ӮX,$y`rpFt|[|䛏Usɩ"үKE>n< T,J}p26$]B ͨA’g:I6 mu%zRa[s*Co+E$FYx}"-,7(rLI2}sYpFcb\<BFln-6G$_d?PֱW5ұq?t}XT691v+8+'de}1y* WO.%9*XV bXi~^P"Hxl`,n8YolbU>wR5Bو7ڢ]b/DkZ-2eDe_]ex=8.x\ EiЊ:Iisk*uf=#g?v-^CX':bova٬6O|(e>1+/^,C7݀XKqdc}+WG\%pW;A~9>>#Y,rMtlϯj,q@Hm"oƃ~@}+E5jȑRJ8aQ@.4{[{bcd{+S2Bo 0A @)]Xg5ZK.y,!& (ޟPI, ʼnU~J>@qD50i("f-QWqkF%Ėe?j|-L5Y6.őyCTct6OhyAz+Ղ;hfS޻Ow TZ:О23ze9nݵ~꟩펴o5Z_J!$Kzk{^YI?Zj}CzYpݨ`5XGAՍΛ10i+([ySw+NNs}NiMr̼<-*yy/^jZbLIԖX]Kz)ي>ȴʴSeH8dOԦmUUV.`kW]'`8=:bh->CF ϑ]dzSsSN\MNn ۼraH)ii9!,~HgAJϸ9lsI67[ݚN$}~N*~{|?493/4܌#OAR308\hM^Ďʫ8뫐⤐\ίky!m\V 䒖mѸ*F*$#էĒ%%]GsI`{ki|̫7ψ(h2l-I>գm$1|''!ҧ9hpq'd˕E'vjzHT֬$fWl$! O}.b,ZFGfilŭm[=owd0Co ^3m?΋.w؎;tPсpzT w^ۣ,p;sP_wZė X]*~e@-9G;KհJK<8hҦNU9??ZhvFww[&՚V D1 y|=7c?}'+k(IG '_-Z$󯪴>WN[؅kFc=93k'ʑ^}=G#wVY>$x!=qJ9T#px<uː8}dHw{lV'u()@T㌊{D:r0j{-661Uy;Z\J b=64ݩr11)A?9˃@\{id0vj[i }tWtr#",! ґӞ= 'Oގ*T}]6Qw@+,ici46umFe$˶ }~$})%_[Aa*Or}k;O.`71ȫFǙV\rhxW0nkAQ?*ĐO$Nʹ7ҳߵ;@ږ.P}֥3C@oӡް4p&qaWMZ 6MD 3uw=AfKw`5YY $x2VteV)+qoJ]څl:}M$֩4 Y&6cھ7K]J7U'&|5w4LEtwKvy4Yr25X\m/ȇr7zuhWP\l#.O+w+CzԳ`|Kg$ZӃ[:^g^<Ȕ!9U/,:]I'P9uTnC?œc y~Q\[\Z%W#4N= Ma1$ʧ,-L;=>8;)Yhwa0OT:)` g^8$P-ų!rׁd,ͤmy_rLiOo8D`L"!}-lj9iQlZn}Zvl6?.OSg&{ucxp[3q+7*`cRsȖb}I'7]p~@5:oD3iWe=A_0[){RTQHMZk}KW)un)? wċ{G =1Y5kK;.0ݱkh'{lcY҄ЦU7.?bIϩorm'򜏻( )ʩ<\H,}ݒ#0ݒ7YnRF},RMnIFM@}WԬ-+>'_zRGI̒zX $^5Iڍok]z+lZB>n\׭Qös>R[cq#KnݼNt^'moUkJr} vj̺jIS]i86 *):YyIso{tcq]~Wje=h3N{Kk]A7qQkM8=*TRH@&5ͻcfU}+3 z"?S>e*ʐJEd )4Fa iZ9 TMce4s"Kx%v޹SPӘ~d7=@8eկumF$¸Q~MMae,͵[d9 V5[չU1Fp#lp?^?-- [KF+v:<έwG~qD_[դqCga >B#'RnmmnnU. CҩrK ?mFEG<7*%jv1,v)l\h7RݸȊbaJbhtBcMɑ3ޡDZjhYԴ*o'Pky"pz*i'Sb&94#΢eeƖ<~Wda"\ќҘ 򠃌|̉c&^5,+ц`sS^7i~O;̮2|_UYFOu0H: 7u-lR[b@ݳקSA^=}ltGOn|M]ֺ]R JVx[pl{ }0~)=LYTsV٘Gt|V7#*Y5-Teu%p?,Qd8ܧ|FvgkfwCmq4!Ҷ[QMúO_3'븜4g2Fu`H~TD >Ph7ͧ!\ܚ+l-52ƪ _]w tqqa#06GGЊ|+ sNqYOs ^b}j֍Ԇo ۆ$'e\gz <@ 6Mڬ>ğҳko<򊂨NM'ԥgN#k>W+t~ `:.|LNmyn=_Ox0rWoeYlmEZ)Abޠh9b=o5{J)@"Vxg0Y;Yۖ?cnl:DLC~'O (,pc?J/ /@d=?◁Q398>X/n/oݞUrzc+kQM4LcQoN=I 0k^睄62~խ [܅#8W,`#c4t;[k"8X܀8ȫQ[;$ad<7#Ie3+ V<2ͱgl+MHv]#*.qBfٴ 0X1wbsġ1lzsOWК M2˒~gʊQCҤX&8|ە4Qa9cY+P\iUbhXd6oned>y-ٕH=OP9Rus,QX;eQz^FadmR\{c#i8[hH Aj$b f<9?O;823dC:sүiC͆JO8'shW8}ۥ=XbD+I'bB{61G|{ɓs=´ѣT&=Kms^r >q?MʼnIץCF~?K?Zm4w&V&YD.5+?ېG‹{VZFX׸i`_ yW1'jF$pUOxTZŲ' ,>u#Jܨ5 é'IPC3>k7 :G"-?^^]./k Oo$6[hy_O#ۭ4 y/'B,#Vu7j7Nb"':UjĮH<˹PErU˝#SimdYYyِpqKWCZ3> >kp9[3Ba,w?ZoEKuu8В\oDe0kYqir]4qL_y~W+ՎDC$? 7ֵ]M %32󌒤 ή.D+[f^ay/k7+i?Jy 5}[SyN8$2Ju;m-b7j j'+:]j&/?jV/2mpJ$A'޶˛?^DO#8:~v tW0q3q[O@fV,u5Wz]ͧh'HC>^mtvs~=lw+8L#Ҕ[<*EG(JYztSSirHPxW< -M.wVW-̟:Y Zد3wT=?D݀%$'>[u4>(㡝"AȆǏr?ҾJ&msx$gr&|Uݓ%sŜ@X~`WZyl|8/hG˻qae$$DπnkI 3();ܦރmnr,DHRqP^[ ֎@IS@9q/ķ tDP %r6}׷E ݭSbyG@F("(d'9krK!dU۳c ֢ҟb'VRKc*Y"(qmo)W$g+E)+Eس#xqm>U -۱4QR֥7mkDxH$LsU@h1+?Icc?s#ERzA!gpr]~~9F5m{IS+DN@ B(Yj:UK{N$kWMcf>xH;[n;@Ta֊*.l*N'/,KM#O&}{K"YV(y(*(Ȋk#X1Ϣn7L# Y 邸9!+_lC,1hǤiS+EW~„sמ=+MfEuLF=Z(!7YXwtZtKW2iInO(_Kbm:{oM~/ ɖ9BlW8`u[[Ylfh bhNhdOYyVO2GӀUx\^_j_%#ʊ)I!ŜݒkR܇v˟L9EXԭ9-LI6cta*.vMKeM#ǘ2OιEX.Kpr ?TU6ЧV֥Q.DIRr sWSkiw[:H]#iA?Uiʜ]j]Z[u>bRj0ơRpN1?V\ q3 \vŵ hqb(Ew8•TFxPLJ9ya|.ح[_]i-wp~f(~כKMMtrKf46 /.ͺ-9K v@w妌ipv'^DWMKo$nHT,;ph[S3q֡EiYt[X¤($! c>QPCд!D!83RAjp2dO{QKDSOh#(\E,{K<0vJ(iE/Aݮ"FmUhqWa;]._:%ݍErI$ R'$EKRO={Zer` ~ \T1~%0Mí=Rnp?^EE0BE1^7 ?y2Lۢ~R{?J;:d Xɷ%R*(ճ0VljgijrҮ4Q]-#ɻ 6b jdzmK_hO*O*^襱cưѮP0S"LEI`vhQ3pt }9QV%O4QYrvAo'Eڿ(ǵh (v;QEcsVG
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/2015-10-21T120805Z_1797300915_GF20000026404_RTRMADP_3_YEMEN-SECURITY-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

Women stand next a graffiti painted by pro-Houthi activists on the gate of the Saudi embassy in the Yemeni capital. REUTERS/Khaled Abdullah

Saleh described his skillful manipulation of Yemeni tribes as ‘dancing over the heads of snakes,’ but did the Snake Charmer finally run out of tricks? Or are the serpents still dancing to his flute?

BY Ammar Aulaqi

IN THE EARLY morning hours of May 10, 2015, Sana’a was rocked by five consecutive explosions. As clouds of smoke billowed from the center of the Yemeni capital, dust shrouded former President Ali Abdullah Saleh’s residential compound.

The Saudi-led military intervention, named “Operation Decisive Storm,” against the Houthi militias who had swept across Yemen over the past year with the help of military units loyal to Saleh, had begun March 26. But the strike that Sunday morning marked the first direct hit against the former president.

Many had expected Saleh to go into hiding at the start of the coalition’s bombing campaign. Yet Saleh, the man who survived multiple assassination attempts during his 33 years in power, surprised everyone by appearing on his privately owned TV channel in less than two hours after his home had been destroyed, ready to deliver a speech. Sporting a blazer and tie as he stood in front of the ruins of his house, Saleh condemned the airstrike as “unjustified and reprehensible.” “This is a genocide, a vengeful war on the Yemeni people,” he said.

Then Saleh made a startling statement: “I haven’t previously allied with Ansar Allah,” he said, using the official name of the Houthis. “But I declare today, from this place, that the Yemeni people as a whole would team up with all of those defending this nation.” This was significant; since he was forced to step down in 2012, Saleh had repeatedly denied having any ties with the Houthi uprising, which seized control of the capital in September 2014, but now he was publicly acknowledging for the first time his alliance with the rebels.

Given that Saleh had waged six wars against the Houthis from 2004 to 2010 and was accused of killing the group’s founder in cold blood, his support for the rebels, both clandestine and avowed, naturally led to some questions about the consummate survivor’s motives and the strength of this new alliance.

In order to understand the complex alliances and hostilities in Yemen today, one needs to trace their roots. The intertwined history of Saleh and the Houthis, as well as other major players in Yemen goes back decades.

The ambitious Saleh rose to power in 1978 as president of an independent North Yemen. Many at the time thought he would not finish his first year in office. But the young president, who was in his mid-30s, succeeded by joining forces with certain elements in the military, tribal leaders and the Muslim Brotherhood in Yemen to defeat a growing rebellion in the north’s central region, led by the secular National Front that was supported by the socialist government of South Yemen and Moammar Gadhafi in Libya. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which was fearful of the spread of communism in the Arabian Peninsula, supported Saleh as well.

Yet this alliance came at a price. Saudi Arabia had a greater agenda in mind, after the Iranian Revolution. The kingdom saw a postponed threat from the Yemeni members of the Zaydi branch of Shiite Islam, who lived along its southern borders. The early 1980s marked the start of spread of the Saudi Wahhabism in parallel with the Muslim Brotherhood’s efforts to promote Sunni ideology across Yemen. Clerics supported by Saudi Arabia took the bordering Saada province, which was predominantly Zaydi, as their center.

The Zaydis, who had ruled North Yemen for 1,000 years up until 1962, felt the threat, and several youth activists started a Zaydi revival movement in the late 1980s. In an interview with Newsweek Middle East in Sanaa, Mohammed Azzan, one of the five founders of that movement and now a leading Zaydi scholar, recalled the early days of the group in Saada. “The movement had no official name in the beginning, but after the 1990 unification of Yemen we called it the Believing Youth Forum,” he said. “We had a moderate approach and aimed at opening dialogue with all sides. We were out in the open, establishing youth clubs and summer camps in government schools.”

But the son of Saada’s most prominent Zaydi scholar and a charismatic member of parliament, Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, who would later become the founder of the Houthi rebel militia, saw the rising power of the Believing Youth and aspired to new heights. Azzan remembers that towards the late 1990’s Al-Houthi told them: “We want a structured organization; we want followers who listen and obey, just like the Taliban in Afghanistan.”

“That is when our views with Brother Hussein started to differ,” Azzan said. “In 2001, we became distant. He started chanting his slogan.” That slogan was the Houthis’ motto, which is still in use now: “God is great! Death to America! Death to Israel! Curse the Jews! Victory to Islam!”

Although the Houthis and al-Qaida differ fundamentally in every way, including ideology and goals. Al-Houthi took advantage of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States and the ensuing global war on terror to radicalize many followers of the Believing Youth, as well as many tribal members in and around Saada. As he gained influence, Al-Houthi gained control of several districts of Saada. In 2004, President Saleh ordered the army to move in and put an end to that expansion, ultimately resulting in the defeat of the rebellion and the death of the movement’s founder, who was ruthlessly gunned down by the army right after his surrender.

In late 2004, Abdul-Malik al-Houthi, 23 at the time, succeeded his older brother Hussein and became the leader of Ansar Allah (Partisans of God), as the Houthis became to be officially known. From 2005 to 2010, Saleh waged five more wars against the group, which were abruptly started and more abruptly halted.

Then came the 2011 popular uprisings against Saleh. The Houthis were among the first groups to participate in the demonstrations in the capital’s Change Square, setting up camp under the name Shabab Al-Somoud (The Steadfast Youth). In the beginning, they thought it was their chance to overthrow Saleh’s regime as a whole. To their dismay, they found many of their political and military rivals joining the revolution, including the Muslim Brotherhood’s Islah Party and Maj. Gen. Ali Mohsen, Saleh’s right-hand man for the past 30 years and commander of the wars against the Houthis. Moreover, the Houthis were completely left out of the political solution that ended the uprising, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Initiative, which forced Saleh to step down and transfer power to his vice president, Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi.

Hadi was sworn in as president of Yemen on Feb. 25, 2012, a year that sidelined both Saleh and the Houthis even more. But it wasn’t just Saleh who was being marginalized. Saleh’s sophisticated network of men in the military, his loyal tribal sheikhs and powerful businessmen saw their influence fade as Hadi started removing Saleh’s men from the government and the army. Even Saleh’s own son Ahmed was fired as the head of the powerful elite Republican Guard.

Hadi’s efforts to root out Saleh’s allies eventually led the military to turn against the president. In an exclusive interview, Newsweek Middle East spoke to a brigadier general in the Reserve Forces (formerly the Republican Guard), who asked to remain anonymous, about the reasons for the military’s change of heart, as he sat in a spacious and ornate diwan, a Yemeni sitting room. “After the GCC initiative, we were ready to start a new page and accept the change,” said the 61-year-old man, who still commands a strong brigade located on the outskirts of Sana’a. “But President Hadi was vague and indecisive— we never knew what he really wanted.”

He continued: “Saleh used to call us [the Republican Guard commanders] often and was firm and clear in his instructions.” By contrast, “when Hadi took over he never communicated with us,” he said. “He rarely met with our commander.”

Then Hadi restructured the Republican Guard, which was the last straw for the elite army unit. “That’s when we felt threatened,” the brigadier general said. “After all of this, we had no choice but to go back to Saleh,” he concluded.

Saleh also benefited from the disgruntled Houthis, who played no role in the GCC initiative, under which the opposition, led by the Islah Party (Yemeni Muslim Brothers), and Saleh’s party, General People’s Congress, were to equally share power during the interim period following 2011. “After the GCC deal, the Houthis felt they got stabbed from behind by the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islah party,” said Ali al-Bukayti, a Yemeni politician and a former member of the Houthis Political Bureau until 2014. “How can Houthis and Islah be partners in the revolution and then the Islah goes to sign a deal to share power with Saleh?”

“Saleh was smart,” said Al-Bukayti. “He shared the government with the Islah but also opened up to the Houthis. Back then we did not have any media outlet. Saleh’s TV and radio stations were our only way to reach the public. Call it an alliance of interests: “We had a mutual enemy and we united against it.”

In face of this political rejection by their momentary partners in 2011, the Houthis, who had in the past gained power only through force, decided to do what they do best: to fight. Throughout 2013 and 2014, they gradually gained ground in Yemen’s North. The Houthis’ seizure of territory in Amran province, home to the powerful sheikhs of Hashid, the Al-Ahmars, was facilitated by Saleh’s network of loyalists within Hashid. Defeating the Islah-affiliated Al-Ahmars served to Saleh’s benefit as well, as they had played a critical role in pushing him out in 2011.

“It is not like Saleh is ordering the Houthis where to go or what to do,” Al-Bukayti said. “Many of Saleh’s powerful men both in the military or elsewhere joined the Houthis. This dual loyalty arrangement was accepted by Saleh because first it guaranteed he maintains his popularity, and second, he will be able to influence the group from within.”

So as the Houthis and Saleh continued to expand their power, they broadly overlapped. Saleh’s Republican Guard officers brought to the Houthis the military expertise they needed. By mid-2014, the Houthis were able to capture the strategic city of Amran, the “gate to the capital,” as Yemenis call it. After Amran, the fall of Sanaa was only a matter of time.

“Abdul-Malik al-Houthi found a weak state and a weak international response to his moves,” said Nabeel Khoury, a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council and a former U.S. diplomat to Yemen. “Saudi Arabia and the United States— both were very slow to react and an early show of force might have deterred the Houthis and avoided the ongoing war. They took advantage of the power vacuum in Sanaa to advance to Amran and to make their demand on Hadi.”

Since the start of the Saudi-led military operations in March and after recent advances of the pro-Hadi National Army supported by the coalition forces, the fragile alliance between Saleh and the Houthis has become more ambiguous, although they are still proceeding cautiously. They may coexist as long as there is a Saudi-Muslim Brotherhood-Hadi axis to rally against.

“The alliance between them was pragmatic, to help each achieve their goal, but in the end their goals are different and old grudges are too strong,” Khoury said. “The alliance between them is doomed to fail. It hasn’t collapsed completely yet, but it is weakening as Saleh has been trying to find a safe exist for himself and his son.”

 

 

 

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Website Comments

Post a comment