The Other Kurdish War

JFIF;CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 80 C   %# , #&')*)-0-(0%()(C   ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( " }!1AQa"q2#BR$3br %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz w!1AQaq"2B #3Rbr $4%&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz ?BFhCCڽRj :S:S-#>v) ō ?*INzOKLpXSjb#jEF֧T?t9>R;BI\ ~xR}ܖɍEklͨjRnEk*KIz3L*ҳMh"̀q=+OmgbxFD8IcN/DٓE2o_lO-+8=k76z]Zmm#]&Ҽڕ亜54">ԝHm܎Pf8zҸ8x4 PxA'4C&g%Ȗzy_TqdyVop$'MpOJQOnN$dbE3֑I9!#'wNHӉSW|p('Nۗ*'?) ^٩le,=qNsң (`bpn92dZR5;ԫ Fbp2)M\Y?^8c&ѝ.=j0>byP8:TLGnL7WRenEUAZ';g҅- Ԭ*U[vXZ33Jt,DrOd٪C$!&%Y>#V }j\@=iXN7(Er+9bJ'ؾ11T$=ٜ֕b>˜[p vvL2 ֙6/[,6ՌdqPysi`]A?`z5GL] !J؉T?J ?^sR&H@ Z`,Ҹq': w}\DNIKɡ"5 NjUeyc^hL2C(8M-F1SDJ}6皕 S#G(\ c&Vw 44͐M$"LFśޡi9O+`6rQ ވ4ckDX“~Is&Biø\'"4uץ9 ny9S@9ܜxJv"A뚆L/+4#d &84JyoG\u9("E/y?.? JK{IF9Դ->SJqXbSGRdhbۿ-#0U$yVlz([HW>ovv5^OeTu)Po[*< ͒WaƢ.GnƪrGBkby?8zUyAsXJXxu#frNX԰TP0&3X7cJ;Tl8Dc5,ǡ]*sޤ*͂0iùIs~u41#cC+RTdԶ&Iښ1j1dS=*P\dQՊ\@9}zT5 '&7"pqNT ˴3g}Wmؖ]H91dq b^+(8=V{L4i JZ{Qk2zXk Z-ͤ323T:T.c.dHǠi֒hn˕xZDGZuo,yK1s۹xk:'.XF}"2Q{q[6iMa'D,- p7`WnbgH.CÅ@ nP{Sxd_Kfepś$,F:جyۓFc&A2n#( Z$~5J_0HQ{kJ*I[+ҫ?!1;֌WXgWl:rڒq#{PDekzqZ[ ˷S!w6x\aS;MA"]R$ʬ֋{?Vյ4i&* } ?ZG5-VV -١eEC+u3뤟snS:Sn4{Faʉ0'Sk.3Gy{<~sEe\!qlk*Ԭ]))3ph ?5‡]rq[)A2r/L֬m!H-Y=9} k4+`nHT"ʉc2q)(O7ZkvٽĈx $dG9? ''n54ײYY leP >/#ݜHѸM:9/qKqϵ>C5ҙ`*QګK֕ƈ]C09M!rqԃTuv:(7v;X~F0bLSă:pTȊٙ$zZ3wb1ƴ+OkE!]dqR ۈPPdT-`*Jp=`E +Bq\26O]DSP1 AN)@1RqI4`w Os қp|'(Q%=цU:E ;Th.0j+`qr$XccIh 4w:J_JjtǸ}6I}`S$ʕHz{Ьqڜ3U!//o@ҕؕ8,HA֘A1OSy4AҚAb2Tcˋj~U?n:R8ޘoҝbuSNP@o@Ďsi#=N3  G;4rx9?JG~ (ǟQR0sEs>,bg|۹UNz>9 vƽ=+ȯs-V9dzg2LgڐdHzעga)WV94=X`3^)@TЉ c~T6u&Ap !\Qr{wڄԛM,mg{*MUQ-M]ZЧ?GV7e|τ\w5|?>&h3+m[o!?ݓdWI#v.}ݫ2$ɱу)A\6얇_3KY~S\晪Ev6b ȭ:GCwe=+p+d)ֹGB]@8XtJNIv}]*bGZr p@,S~j *0Y6!SNѶ2U~&Z nz1O\Ps8H`qc}h?vOI؈!WFʞEO0NzRoW#;8'FwsҐUiq{[NH%GI-[ojKBhlUq;e_E9zlnvZZ0@edi17l⭴}u#X† 8eIl}[xfHoE#LWn]X&6+19GBfQn&|,y:ՖeWSPMAOZy8m?6 eY7&zp(ca xZ>~VA]i㞌zJ<\[6, DG!ǧ\c{fQx*Üձnrs2 gNp+Aҿwҩ['jӉq8{Shy~`UGںEfd9],J8s9nG#$Ǹ}|zH#; ʂCQ΍*c=PȃV+u/Hnd.z R&6ǖ3ڟ2 x ڟN{Ry tdzSDF9= Db%@+͒Ŋfm)!Ux9\r:s j@ZI[#JmJ(&|ӸE1ܙpI'4ԗc$g)Úh =i >GJSp$#.91ϵFC{S6?M|l ٝQ0:fSvJ!ȠD Z&.̃$庎;F]pXҨh߃PĎ22M8/4ņ*MH)0wqԌ~B$Ҫ^ت&熻OW&<5?5|W>!8zqH9k@HO\  M9ۘfPF̛գV8W]xVd%8Fv$Wxt$X̏½ Y3."TcWWd] "Oz]&es'L+sȨY3SbaP+WsXț %.:qqLqql5UmSjH=XX^Pf0(Қr#JdJp9ʼn楻Ӂ ) ,j2I,1Szt!e w4."7fh8'B# |Vy[95zNVFx=nZJ崍>Qu3nr2N>Ejc]T~\sBǎ3KNU:퀌'ڔ.ASP`JGQ4+jv]ƹuRڪ:b2hB{6m5(/ ˄cǨhqd 'p'jO1 YeֲG֯[ȃSh@n$ں}Q\;*VJ֞j&OsKd^U=!V$9U,I#Rb"*d)jv,v.GBzUA)? t#J̆"7QSLg-P<-3o#?-4Q&B#71QJcެ,A@ՂIzSscYRMFqD,F,qQzcHGz UQsڐ zi G+uSNrSHIwq1}iҖҒ֜zn~4[9H6yق zj)z#h2 Zb hIxzVgr:V~Ͳ doR3=9GQvᱫ8ߴ!ۥ ;S^Pc{j(208✇=M3r: sWj3${ `A$SIx۟\uLN[oOZJNJ`z2&a=Cޜ_w !h+6]]߹Jҋ'g !{V>4mjnaMɫwDJypzz a9yCwXŪ,Hxl:v#z[3#c]F֐2 OtPKa~wZvN?nA)RVBz株u6wwU#|)#qS{S6i`Yx҈HO9yA%Uu$C\Z}5$OHU=FAr'qQ]_:l7%l8%&IEFbI\A=+BK=a$nGmɝmrt01Zv~ H=-[;n#b dvLb#<Ɵ)xƏƩqe& e)\ Op1=_ vqD^(AێG8]oYI= e8`{2xZm/$FBd! `lx=yV5VЖf ~[OOz{y9kx)UB u9=}1ZOѬCoN;N}9m%m2"e$ılPי>q|SP0^~Ts*7.^ikdldu`q'kHIn;ڧ;z98vGMg"s*F!A y{+Yeծ|+Fm56U.*瞠C{f07PO%噱^ӵ&\ZO};!ςrUs{u5\kڎ'P=ȁIOWq [Kg^hx{NEo2w24l æO=ʖ.;KCAYT>Uә4E,'qbyck'k\$ʑd#ȍ~ % 3Y0_OSrv*A'֨(avN8ZAPIhĻtVmsҵP44l{01]2*1m+wqbb8"s֤Ң*K,M#=MF.})w\ ֚NıwqޘH<"k)$RG^2x1vMYFpy4GZCJH'D8(^=-1@R4$fG!p6@#7i4T03HR=[ $J#E!zS7p=ge,1E8;A>/FW5BB $u4HY99?Jz0*6ҐT;bҗӜSոe\/4 #~\1j햞ď$TBbYPr{ko[(;ܞx1ó=Oߘ&|D'FN~ xÓfwR!Dn?x>8-(婬ҼtⓠHGH'⺈`)FW=qH =0hOJFnnjRtx-֬5QO3Үv4LX`֗bO^*=zU"OY\qqJpK Qd ׹mϘH˴^+4J^#mlN{Sک1,pvHhY>0Uxlc ֤oԼF_+c\Pbr3;tO5+0㚛hin6a1+"Kt(0TKS*-UAmX[x̹I:SYucjȝN잆W#~=* PޣHg-53.NgMe$VLH;79^{yU9".5=h4K*>ӥ vm:`ow6y(sZW\-Iyo9Iʩ1fsN?/h8[嵕 56NI+&Q !csۣt^U{soK[-5ZEdKTN]T\qȭ\Z;KbCĂ-)Dj3FOMyWV9Q"K{%@,n6Tۆ%{UٳިYI]\tXz:Tʃd!{}I> 䂌?:o][R TLMO!1^R; E'YͤA7qowIr'S}")'*Mqs'qq. ' RMA4i%x4oԦh5)aZ-QYp 鑷qam ܑ%ഗwMj{촯2[=)@..X/O4:/4l`ƭBgryN8zW"Va#pYA' &Xo|Te,BkyXcj  1P?Wyq}dqsVB ڹ+Qk[` ާ~g~&֨#vEѬlgݔ ~ac%%T ̲5m:$m>*Ry|^!ױ=gG. wd.Lk#HzM޻ ,p8U9XK$Zܦf,!!X#;v(!Hۓ^|ʿo) i B=01}Ma=w@WᙖEiIl)Hixk&{itftr1䔍A0pyg);m][!.6@Sl'r:6x>uspHd[(vO#8&E\jMjG fW9pCu%  Zwv6ĐNvpzHxc@k#&3n;HI 8ܣ}+8a<1U"\(VE-jL3+vgI:Y:Y^'Pty&hrk.Xu5b +6`֕bh95LFէ[6d tuT':֐5,b ">(5idb FC CNH0yLqJk>QgrX"MFfbN*[wj $Xt`n8j2chZ 1A5ܪDk~ռJh :S'TmqL kd!]A\jfש xq8ss^hW|xK8@~cEy< @iRwL ͑Ґ. BOoJc>0*F Y2>&B1f|zZpm4G)G5ڮ 6L+g'WAncF0E;?:6*$uZu$ e\ʜň"j0LrÊ*ϴl.RdSȫ|N[5Mhl:G]zwW<+;g_ pkF^cϥgZ7tݤe 5sҖN B׃Q=I=zSO5 E ךr#N1ҫ88 ytBߺ^)%8PT g،j9(Kw*:j#p8槳큊?W8V"ș9EGdǏ^q& ӷMá#hI Tc'gi@ ֈ*UH?Ҳ~ xxsWh${6̌p99 p8o{ܮ3 gv!펠 ,+摁gw'JzC-u?k^W*K-SVeX{3gxjMG̹yk 09*Hܹ5xyZI$!% #ȭ9aYQNT`~fڿⰄ>uE|Cs=/vlצWcQdkk1yqd|ª­qX͸' I) 5e__,n H/Zej+_%Ӥ (Vf~ujDc~X<  U+fHm{0.YLwq8vmXi}K*2C3 $88/Ҵ+.ni,3y1̨ݷh g$sԺ!FdHCc 3u⮼LVs@.pD[4eT$$W=p8it$gio4h$u5Sa =85ϯaDPl[$'9)_kmcI%CʮT ==9&P~4ƽֹ _M,2InǸ>K=֫5;Yȉ)Рh's #ZYjJomnfP/(WjK uz½5X##Oj8M@0O#U=#[TfTgHjtjKS%qZb[ Ⳮ\:ձ %OZM?gg5lPNMe3{VQdzE|ٔm bNW8[EEA5JJjp{ͷ9;D Xq*pveC0 P]l`s2EKymem\+ܹؑE"`+l;̍ݘA]w$}jz;O<-IJ|U,ЏQ/k*[NwV@'* OI[׊GܩBCN@2#k%+Xluw:V0RbpB帎Kxw Xr:ɦws%?gqlK)P$288NTQ4G%د!\H1TmF!j/qٛzmvm'Y6/P2@=9څ׎aDBo#DԕˏcGmociQIq[̲;:!@9so:nsikag wcħRlfjyZX~9B@ZL|#n%'F[ 1xzzŤiۙ]lԪ>km6+=6IZKv6};ΩIn3>lZPE=D':éXȉ^f)U|2wV1_%FAGZ{(xL3!&>f+p;l vf||NF#:Qd g[kD\Re?J˵nOCҜ5h+6S~H(\CǝѰ_\Sy=H @=ʞ%,itkS%3$zIp!qV%ӢVX`:zJ`!9>8􄉋y97qm& p>}V831S)iYʲE<nqۊ ֛&IԸT ~W%i_Fs]guRǦ+ ՙ'^![?b fYj,sv%CxJǗwmR5f|;3R f_3IQe9R2^Wb#i\ZGR)hަ vSSW wqS^lgcЃWGJ*vSQ9C"8ROA !JL5d(@NӵW}֬JY2lT`"?ul+(ɦڰWOP 7 =m>R0_K_ǎ$3:mr8\ i}*'8e:ppjr@M RGR& Jԓ'p 0jc{Ӥ7NB)6Ua3cK(Fmc=[yTƻK7͎kZ\1vVVX\H$T:XN-J6SM F(CmJyt>mm& մvH;PiuOhԋY]6 ,}pIѭMKx#XaGIF"Q !'G5\Em4\%|v?" sֺ$S4׮t^)/ݿ͍B(yF 3\e$G\rjxk̗H^T6[d' ~dGf:,7gVW 9Q'#Ulu OG^d8dCHFNp+t8=Vܥ]g1wT}wg5ڬzm [!u),*`0H8$BQl5}J 8-O2hl2GlT5d.S¬-mkc i2%r*)bg®)+#81եgeIu5n߽V#]7l[Yx9aiLӥls=9"--.*(]"Pn2;s֙DqwvliTlc.OQN ,1қ@LwHy8UIɐ{d$#W^>&]E=9cTBc$p@),Bj] &e }H&3昮q$C@I瓒+ּfYf!o)ᓌ_+ܿf=mDڶV%>+44NlL/EWiS1+)zV+ !^x+'1ޞx>: fdE@:MǽV#=kƇ"9Zɐƴ}!jɲnC!`2MCn9aNK~.Ab/~̒~V os:dz+LOZ!- ET{8.ŷkhqްl\rjlnJ!bie+Oүw"vEix~EHw;MG0bnSpA: ²tvU dGZP {B²:-e0`Pd I)р$@8黨K,ּ<{fIpZ{;ƳGە̴,3q>B `.ʾeF袙7V+ 1q=ѐ." }ۗ ''?62E~|b@\#0i?cZbKwwEC,<{Ա$U*k֛+6CkgxR f1!76[w wkN0[EbVkyk;IL!Aߺ;0IJja 'o-~0\x{66wA[q޲.uhgҮ&{xٖIm TzjKK#2=6P 7)cn R!.>rnZH;{I.8Ls`G_\ K1ww eB%N=TJku$ThgM*to '![ڶZjV֮PӺI7JҶn$"}LqS&wA:Uxn,Sa4ҭʎZ3!|(u(<9qg`$6хi'brysy#1àݘmE9㐨'ɋ<p\xs\!Ry@+THdۜG-;@'>r8dXE =$ipQ #<#Ro0 , dYii)NǷ;19fsӒELd2Gk0(DuY-V=F1UԜuR*1]8z ʝˌ5yAlzV, p=+Q"ʮH$Y8o0*u氭$ڤ6NWyAiiԳ~uJ+/+BD"L8nMbk` lTXl30v:w5 d夕7,> 8mC~y*e/niJ6(j:v}(܉ )#;B#WMt-)[ I>=ͽԗ:ɒ}# ѤXMbͣAa8/tybH9qP4Qv۽]\]u+嶹_$!8 39Mo.%c3kKDf`C2G-KEu ,g +`9!܋O5m1*O-B(TBdMu-7Po *I uL}ech~N$np%y-`3- 0{IV@[vihnL7PY8-zg#spjְdjڮ4˩3 LZE,iNἰB\\SΧ6kT n #d 215Csr!, ;`?CK׶cWX]唐#8cB[x{{sZGk@;)fT+n<7`qx>g8w. e#\FI'A^[s,#@6#q’squ:,ck̗ @=C ʹsW&fTN-ݔcbRX±,cv#Oŕk=Iccbms򑏔''AkVZ0 aW {2s5/ikjViGX_z'09\b,9;)[Dž@sޚK)܏R8i\!ʋ4ɚ8. ICe2qCQL,f)QYhmi^+$m9λZ>!i &إ{yW QBaEP#C ufVR=2JW4m#EexWUMozfb% vbGr+VSjej.ZD^"GP+*ѼM)KF+' >GJc5*aNdcOYI2cMe&b+jVCV-sFFE4DpCu95RS558 |njS0(G^)1zc_Z/Юd!ka|?*p+v' II;\T`2~cOvmu2&2j\I\kTԩԙ涋"ZL>V\_'5qbRAnӰ^Ůeb;6` C8~95 2:u/ Ih,,mA"Oe&B;OZV%',3Fi乒ɧ&E+#!rW{ Q?Fkp:L!IRU%2!XN}vb4^V&Tw͂*Ř£d/}DesI9'?.g^"n.uW+XaYEm 5ks֓ є2\0KjKFͧ̈!R>itBZ3TpqΛNvh H-簮C]ӵ%"a Jq%r23s^nVS"/>^y/'T¥}{k/i!=:d"eā9B#Шsx.;I%ve]Z0'ˏn:Rw,!q[V%= $X+jr: *B,G}ǔ RXѮaZϫw̒C@Lgq=>c* FNtn򏙐u`?9.5 PdJo,pK eo\u\`]D)noi,0|;98#`v̲xNK%vUS!ep!Xesj-+`$P$UAyǭSԤbD#k<+ ?tMuo!PUcvX9 7''=izMvAvgry8|RK@^YIK @ ܂2*[;E _pR Rw6Ցz)(NQKϰY w6іr{#9Z H0m~ZKmkG]l6#$ʫ.6 v[]@ T! NV&F13H'pVs0 hp@SFSa (qOl3/lR8ZmsL֚͐dj27})GNdC98)`Iv1rXן8HIg%A(#ަƊEX 8VFSšK?KkQ;~Fc8}jHyYZݑ$ 504½Zd}[j_Qt_M׭M)Exͅ5TjuoS$1ߥWp P`;יR6v;ʳT'j䏸P 5r̙ #dU= ͖j܌"JyȨ&CblշD˒ $*۬JF9Z 4<61y *h4wN~Skh9))8MhIju?Hy:>fzr1~qTnvը vۊ)[Rȡ&V7I\ =!_Ԥ40 = M"BqBi;SIݗA~\cڨ4 ƌz?fy⠹+[q< à,8Uye_ n'VԂÿvf}sVK'4&W)m%KV`mRĞR D6؝YygE\sVޟ yѿFO9mE4VCfT5*C8~U Ă &[>h{*k褵dlG%7JFFyzX|e%XCuxق Fj'Rʎv7O-%+BT(>Ʒ[@ӃDR-bScaar>j>!Gu-6BT1@@rA}k CӮZxm.a&[#t@0+ V/m=K%ʖR g'ǜ1lVWu+kA50- CmjRp=jοr^uslpʠ E;72x W!)Э4[S)XZfwmE < x猤ȑ^o͠KYu+Xiwyu8/ĺķ>(K6, )܌3+kYRNʭvaHĭdeH˹f>`v䐞,N}Ms1wzrJfv'+[Y_~] t,?*Β[t{C]jQ7LR@S9VjV=;W44Gj˯^* ?iY|Ѩ\S\ zi鱆R0vfmj\Cc؆2A$)QsXzZc} eHWYo(#Amr8&)=E9cJ{Tvc {QU >8J\`08v h2yjDʼnA!hB' ޺R@\:ఀKpv@ݲz)%`lrKhKKrKJmL p8𧅤}^;&vH08JJ쵻#D-ZDg'i9+y:M&Hy) ldV@9@pF$MK;_qDEc0#xI cC}Nbe3|ѰȔ$~^s]w[ͨvMg-x%K s{m~`𮭩Ţͺkhպt﹋ѝvVP\q w^UC1'ټC%ݽR$V$<,ScZM6A>L9.]&R۬Z[aNFUg tR09v4=ITy!Ҁp F#s՜w|yNnu;G;&21w$VV9[#8 xǿSSl^8"&܎+.@0;YW:D20zҤg#( qVc(A|HҥhXSAcEy8L8"6^x*ѸIsL`rjBF99&e |:xgҞ\QYRJ{>5jH3)~0hMؤVGqOk $Tzzi *"ƚ"S;? ] ._bArN_xs_amoZ_|lJ}dOU&`pb5iuQVs5h|r:Vc*B=Esq씨\XkseH;b/MZ:Vl?54\  *^I_b&pH{\͗.Ѹ`$>V4Q΁;N*ZݳdL:<Yzc YOVQ`xCS$ k?ou0*,KDkj*\Jqֻ;baFZ2`iO4u(oU{i]Mn˻|x'#Ay5jvem2[%YQ:92I YO{{9)#E, ,cБ{WVrn:vz޷kP=Z}hkd7̒'0ąyIgלּ,e\E&ާ'=+-'fjH"y1V SQVWStmOMi:{II+e@Xb$ST#"ssXn@'mz6V6-ŬBTD7;YO i˙nsHn಩ȤH\dy}/:m ![DfʬXP (Z/X/ ba33+(=OҲfEMb.eymZ9nv?8m2nRzok؇H'9#јY308k:KTvbEU=}F+|CVY e.UnK-i\zȧkvG4QiΊ2+((ˎzPc(csAB$ز Kq*㬵ۨkGP`7}qy$^*]߂g8򈳍#*TbĒ1ȗkrȖWs*  MibytZwIsyˬ-U 56g}is:%,LzskVLRX6b*/T01?w\6z5Nd\.`}2*m٭ dZ6sC q88iާeAsڴ4Gx6k0og ߽PLeJ#l 8s Ҝj r8+2ܕPVO=xi Ux83Ҷ,Y.UUT󞦬DdAc ջ.F)agls$nېsmi3ۄS0}KkZlRH19,}ޮ<}kBKdd1koLWR9 7*ɀ{;}*Gma@E4mީ3xS]vJW7`t2OWJ85gVlc?'5X{QEYBDڪ5?c]^]suNk>dVgNyn:dT/7''*۸XZq'_Է5ٓ#è8pE:Q=+|Eke$SG ©ukZKxOMMl鷨(z5TDĈL5jۓp _7ềBHvQ^Mn ԾajZ@Ā]lAWwa7"bM`G5PКTb\hCzrK+Kh`{$da<{ҝՌ֥l8q^rn +q"npzqǨ+d!PJ J-?`g֖ӧfDf@r> Fs_HYhJhy.yQؤ㑻%gWM}GT_GB7++\ $j-fţCͅ>b[UC b GQֺ}4 H'fp6p*986Fq0mSSE&/VЂ\m櫦}M*M5ЍRg dr4t}v f+=0AwqOYHEjiC%rf 8POtkN]WNed3)}(3G+ϮkMz]OJM^XGG pysKk }VS\-r tߞ4^[]ϴbK5b燄0^I;e&C͘ A١ ڸfga?QƲo$kk=9YĉooޕiXe@(tHiMjR.* wBݒRZEh >975fNW4I9rDWAY5RN* zVs%A?0~nivV1a{cv5JR{ib@cq=Wi`xKfp~n\f;T- [ìbL@ #@jι2ܗ>hFλ$.3NAV ڽ0q%cA<nrvu; !0ڷX`+9ufm)Gq,c.3 13~A ٭i \"Iw)U?{xV6,AhX} lI]xOEⷲH jʳ`GRA<_Ng0 ̥awɆ8Wz:֬ڬ6Q./0Ď0NA+'"k-6(~lFbF@*{`:mfH=z(8Q[y_?gg`I\ZU*5ýLF[}Ykl.^"߻9sG@1tIC<"I$8% Bpq#8G=:K[#F(''j6i(# M3ޭHvA<rdĈ̥N#qC@X4/b1F$Epχntۓ4?yƽ-Ң%`ClJ%MIjwBrǏ#],"qCrHʅ$SSp;US&@sSQG\W;;2ҙˑ}&\W&7KxN-YG81Y ;Vf];-!`̂DaЩ5+ҷ6wYI)^[[V* ћg$ bBEfé Y@#łz- Ğ!!oxIr*Uy܅ 5;ڹBO1^[:Mjh '1zJ6*浻,yF;NJؾm&L<725í}e&O1^ 6|ӗ1X_alʒI2θ\nD1硭#I#O "N 3J k$3m v'{؉͖vfx9.άYb?j3qZWfZїEvom=ڹܣRx켻;bl]2dTq8gP?ʍEekY 9q۩\mUK"dUf r;W1.'hl]'` ~0eqxȷGoe &epHظCtss<MYmF!Rh^c;1)^''bQ?Jvu4tu(kMk{ISfX$p_-vIkش$y%i*8#Ij*E>͟_!H-/7!%'̸uVe?z֮n-짹,;dCn$<zKVw@uAf )Lnt[-Io.amMlW>W#i=55Qf2[iAorS 2\qʮpdSߐTE6!;E]^L.o<Pۖ$B<(Oz}߈]8ˮ0q޺ ֈ=CV}'^}Va|Ӵ!%~b@T^i Ρ={}`=5_\_LΒIfxI! JUm?*=^7  T/u%+FC) ͝O*i$sdfrI&6^x~z+f{UMܐs 8-sl瑓SY'o÷* i#,Km9z֥KZW}i $chS ݪ[$6۽AG$5Px##2D92p}r;29r7ɰLB.`3Y`~ztHl 1Y|#8$OjS5Ru-֬^#bL&'pְgv1NC! 0=E?i%^=makc2?h[ED8*6ZEF)I`S]ve;s iCj3f%$qX/*8# jRr ʾ㫶~h0!y'G^O>|k6a_'#惮:!Bdj>U}W= c2s:mǵFÌ־bUI5x ݢvGŹ5\`Y13ppAkRmB+E;?\医 ^mhrTњAFm=MJTgH095wfȸ"iz]r- ie=q_r{ <3}R y[5힉j!SԎK{קJ-kF՝飿ltٮ rE¬ӷ^#ROj Yk6vϡ}oVQXr;WF#4]o4dċ_*|I^nA =˫J= n9cQkԑN\1yZwz?<8":HJ.~O3ʴpG @:L#\i2r65 H3? ?LGAڽS!3i^*6lH5vQ#_LV`/U 9rFLrxV7ۆej/3 N$97=k:J[^c/)#7W=RO*3늳Ơ mb-AElnp^k`=:Tly 1CqTH%p9 U J6;wn"9lFF[/7b2uawL)Y ,k¤}[?ֹ_YSkm/JY$Ow Q#Fݣms߀aj#M'W ao,BU( Cv=t7E1[i +EV i!P++:S݉FZ|K]E=ԊËx=?K.X`Xݭr/*$.y3KZZ P+pFHDocROm$2uj3 '8v5yzXj 4ЇJH38']4u]V$p<p9a6`Đ\̍nV$tv16uېY(+cɴ&\_kYNT]e<ui0zo%ql9{M]$E0jaj^[m0+wF,&zwDYpGFg ㎵@UdVv*l7OZdXr2@M[ʚ# |޵us2a*4Cy!מ'b 'M^:!=qTbM{dp*.H`I82㷧X|!0c_3 Ա6FǦ95b;3fDi *wAɦ>m}jASz/, 2zT֞iM,~ܟ#aӵGeH$mP`6ݣN9sz&:Z9pHāk&+#DivCjc7w3YynҠgjᘿSzT/0c]BFxrݔJ' SrzEhc1=HmZyrsHv,mj&;2iFT'}Ns2fo/!1t\J=mn~cc 3(΀?NEjx_N}E В=ʇt?zz`'v@@3 ꆓcHxf8KH?LPI^Hd\?Zhe=r?pHzE$9e|52Ȥr<0#Oȡdm<=WU`nq4E*!nZoF1_@y62!ګOA=e9ZTpGƌ)a2F"`د3ӿun!z~oejcE0Še櫫o9-5dEomQh(VD^BOX6Z'{*)cHܟX Q_.)GR*$twp T1jy2y6jZi-g%㏯|3rF:/(ts :DK hkf ^+L:zZ pqP0ҮGܚH AY"YbHJW6:zZ^I%Lq 33x֢eMsZ_.r9]W-[ϔDÞqyu;0: -\<k21Gn }q\jSho-'˽Pe8<ӖGY.n{iZF_1w٦1BkӔGk\:?NA|E.MywhuΘ7by7yjɑО%\w0y8K;H8 oLa&YWW\ֱh#. 7kMLy' JIVL1#?0бh^\oo/OԠ1i!F`_Q]g6#/lc28cu`9Ihuf{^OvV @ r>+K8gw=bA r;ҲgD ڼ_ Iw+#`،gkwN_Ev#ʹU A^HNHwXQGJŶaD~VS+[\HNg4G5 nenyY2 7r3NtwF 8qQ*>63`vp= -b%*r:1\gcWIc]BXw18=y>^XcX+B}_SgWR G+r=qZʷ-Жwc1[ˏ*ImBʌ kT;5k]x#Ů:E3Jsrp#8WM-kmTӠrbX ޒh¨ ڣN]j%CFYX,rȥI ozMbSMR0 )?^s$p]˧8.ʁ#mZSjIfhؔa`s#7Hi*0j}rlx9ɮ^]Ym4o󯃰X@fF8\c,GW2J,,Rvʨ uT4sH4˻k5`(Pq3ȫ3řr1\kMXOϔC]ČfOEw8q޷.b̊7<8OZ4A8TczYq񷚋8f`'a*6S >RsOWgf{UR`qG5@&ǸFxguE`Ϝmop+1RB^hP+(` y#M "35KJ|ףw\%@HßZSդ-Ԓ}jUE^od~Έ6ч %Cd)Шa~Tvgo3 9azq]E壅C G]!@Jtj|L|L[7fE?h%ҠOj6<:u*# Pp=j֪2p=fmqFD F*9mèl@C#Ш5%[**A«x] pc?hmgץ:"GJ|C$ Nx4IJK-^8 *c:ΙmbKKA:227c`Aͣɦʛإ .C\v`}S𖔲E,s^<.},[* }ce;(r%$OS#7Lpc$@<ʷ7,l߻N=?:ц}G?j)ѯY/Irڎ!ߑtZjp9',L4t[MS"i&LbҍzHž:QOUFȪMA֩_ridq#}+N+C>Vsڇ 6y. `g9Ҵ=Xg{KȒ4&YOܧP~b~n{_^+],, ʐnpQ׏j[h,V!Pyir'SBkNex6]UD8sÞz.)Xɞ 6O#pz["K"q̥U$`wԦ-t:qxUՙ=+hr2.9ztKȳ(bV`ҵMg/E#y˷1(ኹjY}izszgjARHSOJQqHc0)s& =*җw@QJ8'L4Rc=( 0:!y5HTHnoZX{k#svNW '_Г.)׭+KhPe{hB IVqՙqh3LO h֊ PhUk'Vݳ^XϢ,IרBs?ԑZT'(N:PT]C&WKLUJ2H>3-+H$\J*3V2t&7'#5ٝ:='8=!hϋZiFk[vy xK&.\]\>eb}²ڼ*9= PRdR/ҹmnSOzf8i\sQG! Wzg']{0p8<3n 3G<ޢFOZ[vLqDJ<{% 0FEbݎ+V`z:kr4t5dudgAtRڹoVā<䪵<;Eu9 nCD[dyUU+Ҩ\AU#UISL!1RZB3: -IQWUHhW qU%eʩa LD&@>kY;t5ώ5Էҧl3v]Ҍ5@9Ǯ+^Yߴ]BV͐f$]Hn82{2"jGԊGȃ=N9jZt,Dbru' 6[w_V9g"Ddpqy+/"{k"eb9Q v6mhI$Tsi8)n u:Ku&BYA{TZᏗ[҅x]gL0PR_ sŦk7ޟ[qc#rNҧ|0˯]ZKz6 Xč<60l8~@[#'ot%XI$mBvA9%<74JyKHN~oZlu/j(6v[`R.p6;I8lBiFK{r! 6(;xPyAqL<9ecIr3 B ¶Jвo4V^''XYZZG&\Jtq kæ9/%aS#oT_q%Н5+-:໻y ,fϧN2iY[%Q 1=15He0q$rA1\l;6t!XR3 81Znh|iB$ qx:v\nl`xu-87e;23^?k_C*v--KvC3)Uh> n A!Ԝ^c)?$)| d 7;A 0xijA]-u$i#+$ұ0G#Ԝܯsyd}Ztnɥ9s*YTRr[gh!)"K1*M2&A\;Yn:HccR+,cn0D+n"9[{5PzQ(Bz {WԜUm2MfL|: {[DzXy2œ,R*1,|o]N+s>Td'*G'9e"r <ʹ+9l0+S̀eGJo#b4.4 2riDzTA)8#&%hMu F}k>8iM*My̸ccq@kB>\+ 7`+XW'o2k7O ;V8(rv̥b1։395lSCd +:렑ҹ;Lks\$D{n>yd&cq\7gWgG'&Ǔ޺Fq\w% lJ \oIjyV5W?/"S7tdRQq@qk!wKkuHR޵mcl!\.7,<}H@,)XN Cgh5}5'VHHs,n?`kںoh m(| 2Oޞk'В!k[:)nu x- ok~"Jrݧqk2@)iS:k&gho*FAqU5Ɏ䲂ӧ?ziaTugL`o{Nݱ$fl?:㏵K]QDLkko/UlqOh1}#W8[ʄ6SUdxPDqzq,My#rҵtˆgpIuqɓq\\\Z(0rԗ xEۓסg5<5{n.m'DK;4vWpsֵנY,GO5B yy{;9`DwG3fXѠZmfFrwcsK^ѣմk+MQ{e;[&be~fj!<aIO/ϸ6=U;W5pwGEl\r ] YkfX<3\lb3>Zk|ģi5&+N<%0͸] lU8wF3T6l䚩   `Us9;@'7mWd$0 GTrw%;֜51f#:@߶h\G) JIu"!U@&_{6'\ k3\z,R[Ȫis)ʷz=D3n7fdѪ* WW4g ,KpZXQbUi'a(0D';BaQ YU6nGZH$GeHsU4ǵd^\vbMI&q,L˷+׼c 5kKs5ݑKG真ZkJ x .+KX֒Z*h${橩RhUP+$<-A4c*\(Ɍ#'\rr ax&M"fU7m&](q\} ]|UIݹNz=ŬNV9f.hP1Zu)Wt*+MV{naɏ.81fNA2GL3@/c 9c.~.?Q*UJU<`bI,%8jӺmh)\އE\27dvKd%7IpJ0󁎇ާg1i>B!%w`r35WĐYog2η3I#êsfܣʍ!Ò7o'TE~S1!5(۷Xxf'MhR '¼/g>xӮ`Ki21{⹽̦0wcҽ PӮXѤ9ʔ$r?`]*b/Qt碡QXzƝkw*A85e'VB=>>^,@ʨQ|F`R2N8W2a{"K"84qjEU*:ĖInzSb$;(T 11U Jr2Pg"a';^)A8AwL c@+~>tD=vzkL?u䛐lerI+Roΐo}0+R,?|сG~) VdcsNʃWF="2rc\RvP:wK cP>$#}=2\g` &Ȁ!87l iaԊ S`JC;Fʱ9ҨK27m>Lp+LJ!OvdzyW}[ԒOMY»c>ks UNI%6|M|-Z16 ;^QI%c>2@9ii:u)Ya(N8`y>di`A?ҁhw1US*]_Iz=$c T]|Oo×7vɠn$*́^? trpFRx}͘SƎC50f9G4x駉s? uCysqykoixVQ@bWFo.mj|, [ZG'[kQI1^E|Jz^&uӟ?K'FXnwyuZ3hv J$l4z>woѴmue4sY1c*88~{u#)KffcQ2${ q7J]A8P2LbTQj%|힔`KU hP {}( yPu #! h/u v zch iEsi4<ةa\#?N)0PՍUPWA=7bfDbcwZTl`̆pq'֭Įn&w:` )BS*pE+`4\nJH5^ažIr) =pL+k.c05BDq rMy cR=뷴. yu uZ]hW{h @=:ս$j̊$sCcpv؀rk+{"Xe 2).zq [7.yÅF?^'/Y$2*@X g'ZS+ÝWbKř?~X)&QPֽ4CcC%\b&X( pX{TL0' jm_-tRIX׃mFlg8dls]}98#QI\6V 4n-#rBIcF築*0߆%\mH{Xբ*gEҝp6F6@F{C1n-pr8> ʹL0+x-vFH# VxP{[14[S YfAf0@bscQO[bM7&%\m# wj$ Y Py,('XYntp8orܐ%rEAcA=LoL|fS\!eimY!9Nws=)ZXZ}r|mL~) +H]QJR7'Ĝu=wft o,W;ry$wk:4lݤa5lӍc7wfwP ˫e{a8UG^}zk1`G6sqvZ\;ghVCZgb9]F%kFJ% ^bH}sHBdǩ={UMHL1?9~A1L7oj&y({W 9Xger!CMY]FI;RDxeZ=c{m E-]ZӳJҕNGFVfĕU)G,Ԟ8=d}W˓_BYkzvȲ[$M<<ẾnqhͼF+y{ڼWĺctKm8IBӧ29?JwE(#5VOHFQv:tgay֦]& ;z%f[-zby$tI$[jߺTe @9?f&6wV췛dj]ꫳ>fnA Fw(+>u 6 8* U=H<3,`%VB#)9bq冥nx5H0c㿯֏GW-_AY$Ԛ+.RyOYm ct$x9b4c5&c)ぜn u=@vd`7cҰZV#kUW8];\Rx"H 2Ua6f\BHZ0)Xgߧ *>[$񨑷7+#Ɣu+7uo?*u/1K΢QҾ @cۙbd0I@"ivS1xEMG+] 2A9>f|rP͎q]}R|PV0<#ױOq<0"1̱Y:Y5͸wʤ>-a#10SA +;WԋFw0 Xz&NyH;#T/aW(H5%yl$P8atRƒ !#V+ocKLj!"HTTP8g[IxkCQ1CnN\$QstH9GkBXx'kE@!p$u ";qE30HF+ݡX$R([ 2**04s<D@#M|F6o'=;{։&GWUd%ϱ> >%1bZx$.-Qb&|*qבסé=:9KзսUJ,9[Ie]!L: .3zg5%2|5<[۠ z/&zN3/V5Fy-YV=Mh,c$h2,z41T^*7\5"F!/\U9مv$mfϖI8O-gMkW]2=OoJ*p} u',O;M65JO1e=~|59ASȢQ&rT9`?*#<yҹO ɗry5\suZٚ>-e]@JR:٩pw`/#?-Y_ڹ eLy>x+,Y95Rs#G@fLx.U.;cׂaV*[$R@ҵec)ZΝr62b!J#0H0Lc^2˴w^E\\Aks5hs֥UKmw,>zDP N+d׵ljq4mN?ƹ]?2dAhq - q?Nc}f},< `b\(3m)9I[C=u4wE*pEU\WCSRؖ0XSpBFn9HHYTʗEgsM;HԻ ؔ q_ x^`LX(89.Ϟ-:wxש'd-uE. m˜3cҪ",wpz8nyӹVyB:Q`N=1RE-bCN1Y˭>IqBzR*y U5ʫc{q`߂9ܳX 4,mw mn"ċ`P3`sDs` OSN rIPy\6898>3J{pj6C3A ǁ (۽ j0vwB$ Y{RȾc׌NslujJ^C 9fHuRq+s#2v]#vS,zOR$VE'ޚڠT$&#VHSSHɦs~r:T#'T;v0 t=:X-McAwb&XA3cҫIYoc.r$AWӾ ou?FkۈS.iWb=? 69QDpcrOvP:4{hdݻj*G>ƓS Ky",XXmyW47s-W7@ CGʣ5ϒ{qш~J`U I?wJ$Bz(\JM$Rs}+Rv]H58`HK+ U׽U+`E̫l6mF#(U=꾢$z[!3涆AnQՎMu -BK$?ǣʼn`=*̖ͅ7]D@h0ңvoI9&['2>z%dʄkE<_4NԊnIcus(ǀNSYFlk9NZkR cP)#%%ŽOY3 𕅜di "ҶLsFGOAP[9SZ,0ʂZ8ڜb`byob7*w^%Vs\VG* "i.Wdwr}OZl_1qՎ?JKI' wj ${bsنsԎw:I8ƕ$ 2XOnP18Gm{Hfs; zs~dGݎ9njw~yyxnHq=:fF|ǘbB2[DZ5WiqAM e=8]X ޟ0\{101nbLㆨ dZ3GʞX/OPtݏ֑}j"x= 8'Ds͋Oz H@vG5$S ǒ1ڜąǥX5GOIhI+=I1ǥ ZRi0}hsj2 Hi$ 6QfP9?}bZ*ނF!O[p<1GrH1"/g +PFP0T8rF3.A( fk*<-0]sOg*0:՝ex'p";*rNM*I6x|?6~fU.*9]I N:ՠo+1yOrZ* `U,X8na*^|UV#xꢜc"HI/FLd:@52/xQaH bU!&;r:YNCۭVb`˟LӼhob*m&q֧R~c%|G1Qљ9c$f> {mI""@ɤcJtOaQ`V"|;Fg5ČVU2Hkl+#JlR2=iҡ#U^Mԩ249JG!O#JA+"T@S' `hF9N?*΅K2qt>LE0s 8~i&Vc`$`H\#ޛv5pji|3M; QK>=+;$wnXzo0hMkc(W)9\3ڨn!Tԭ.!u#= D=i.dѭ9ޢJ ےyoIcs-La%,ۗ9˺U$5<7:ID6$:̬+=ƞ{7Hx}Ƽ/ŶoHdp29{pHh1^3s'\ZgyYŜw, sYWW[˿^kB I. 85DwH3ֽ=Y!ͩ5eEzۃ]Gkge4 jgr zb2E.]lzWzI_Gȕ;{?κMR7+򞘯5;{6<}_B:42w}jں;h˚bD<}Jwxv]e l*{NZ*5fk/ -3`gf).|2._\Ym{)L:RLZLS sk?akɣS ,Udaj5[Y]ol(pۢ$ad2 ϛ**HQt "MW x nj>G>EDfϩ*c-޽}y,5p$zpk{aqEF4ȸ1X3[3cT|Gp{39|u5kH5^07GΟS$㈄z2sH"d2Uvrjݼ[P<{Ҡ :O@Jڲ,6*s4T2{Tf&l=)qCbC:fr=)>rjFr޲oy#lp@E!y7eIR[\,.O޵*:ݤy5R?J&#ꡬP)Z{r)UeVT9ry/"+O5`!Sɥ&hJh\pTYQ$.iyx:̹o%UE`MV1FMRRt#|"3M v %0oS#>0 @|MdEvH’jQwlfЏ!Ү >FGyRd/ЂsMbZY#MqTir*/T9cڮ4S+sHQqXڐ˒ WO,b)Tr۹یUs5)?LaҩM3#W)ijl{ ;QS}+08 R5z΀}:L' r5SjkBYM€I*؂7/l&Gf6@s+R'##'8};2*6:Վr'0kƝ69CS4)sT5 6:W?iMp?3PM\U yAI)Y`RկِCo ?d\i_zK"Y\^I9~q>2Т-=?tIY*ѥTvG E(LrBâ߭wƀ$n݀ 2!tQס7]͙`/^ ;G־Y7֩VpZXUλYH>~'w*77Rz \Kk{$W(U=N% ONvLsN+O&ºC?^NkjejF" E\ќsV9Y.x#旱ҳf`>颊ny8a9(9+3Ҋ(ܔ{U̗.4QZb9m~%Y7`wn'%tQE|+JK8f(أeph\ c_z (VΕZubj˝[qT\l5b!FPA\we{ihsX$jEi<{EFbYps}[p9QH eshee(Dp;fQNƅ;g\VIQE'DaGH4SٺVhFm K6 shM]K;\Ry$U)dFY+i&ПUV%|ZvX`utQQ耷0iPk"xZ± 'SA5E>u $ko!q*5&|L" m'p^2zupxrBs渉хiچ#6w-=Q*jp;EWZ>fRʓ6ϭ"]g,w64r4QWwM1kzXIf\p5#yiq+ųeW TGzGJ(DΈZ׵?xxK!0@|YpEgEX{lC*.rh"V}+=?wQB)噤@QTɢbCz"vGSFfL0>f(s{EK7E5MѱQk]Ā 5R,UvF95^g\ QEfuҖyPF6"zE2'kL 3EU ۽_!¯֊+W$vEP'zWw>QB8$o t )n=StΓ1R%Ļ1k1eE)Ђ3U-.6?_C.rL۱ҨIymzAG,iv ^xۭeyͲӺ#n?rqR[SFI C# G b|PEbd O!qQͨ ӗCE EG;8EDGEH
Warning: fopen(https://newsweekme.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/An-old-book-restored-by-the-lab-of-the-archive-e1481628378884-780x439.jpg): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /home/newsweekme/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 428

ONCE UPON A TIME: Mark Sykes’s travel memoir; the author is famed for his part in the Sykes-Picot agreement which divided the Ottoman- ruled countries and redrew their borders, then placed them under French and British mandates.

Historians battle to save the remnants of Kurdish culture

BY  Tanya Goudsouzian and Lara Fatah

When Mazhar Khaleghi was arrested by Iranian Revolutionary Guards (IRGC) in 1980, he says his only crime was being himself. A sitar player and singer of Kurdish folk songs, Khaleghi was something of a pop star among Kurds. He was also general manager of the Kurdish-language service of Iranian Radio and Television in the western Iranian city of Kermanshah. This made him an influential, and apparently a dangerous figure for the new order, which showed little tolerance for minority ethnic and religious groups.

Khaleghi spent 66 days in Tehran’s Qaser Prison. Upon his release, he fled across the joint border with Iraq, aided by Kurdish Peshmerga.

Thirty-six years later, Khaleghi is a man on a mission. He wants to preserve traditional Kurdish culture before it is entirely forgotten — or erased by the invading hordes. Today, the invader is Daesh. Yesterday it was Saddam Hussein’s Baathist forces and the IRGC. Before that, it was the British and the Ottomans. 

Scattered across Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey, Kurdish culture and folklore has been slipping away slowly due to wars, oppressive regimes and migration from the homeland. “We have lost our lands—they’re gone, and we’re probably never going to get those back,” says Khaleghi, 79. “But we have to fight to save what is left of our culture, our music, our traditions, essentially what makes us Kurds. If we lose that, we have lost everything.”

The Kurdish Heritage Institute was established in the Iraqi Kurdish City of Sulaimania in 2003, shortly after the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq. Funded by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) as well as private donors, the institute was tasked with gathering, preserving and developing Kurdish oral culture. Today, as some 150,000 Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga fight against Daesh, Khaleghi’s team — made up of about a dozen ethnomusicologists, anthropologists and historians — is fighting to save the Kurdish identity.

Sense of Urgency

There is a heightened sense of urgency now, says Khaleghi, as Daesh continues to push closer to the Kurdish-administered areas of northern Iraq, and Turkey tightens the noose around its Kurdish population.

In April 2015, Daesh made headlines when videos emerged showing fighters using sledgehammers and automatic weapons to destroy ancient sculptures in Hatra, Nineveh and Mosul. UNESCO head Irina Bokova declared it “an appalling strategy of cultural cleansing.” And several reports have alluded to Daesh’s reliance on the sale of antiquities to fund its operations, which has raked in somewhere between $4 million and $7 billion. 

“People are less inclined to talk, to share,” says Khaleghi. “They are afraid. And it is also dangerous for me and my staff to travel to those rural areas where Kurdish culture has been kept alive.” Further complicating the matter is the region’s stagnating economy which has hit the institute hard. 

They had an initial budget of 50 million Iraqi Dinars [then about $41,000], which was slashed in half two years ago when the battle with Daesh began. “This is no longer a priority for the Kurdish regional government,” laments Khaleghi. “Our budget cut meant layoffs, and I don’t have the staff I used to have. This has taken a toll on our work, too.”

Still, the work at the institute continues. Its state-of-the-art in-house recording studio has restored hundreds of Kurdish folkloric songs from damaged and decaying vinyl discs, and produced hundreds of CDs of the Iraqi Kurdish orchestra performing Kurdish music in their original format of acapella or with traditional sitar and daff (drums).

Most Kurdish villages had their own distinct songs, which with the mass destruction of villages across all parts of Kurdistan through ethnic cleansing campaigns, were at serious risk of extinction. There is also an ongoing project to record the testimonies of Yazidis who survived the siege of Sinjar in August 2014. 

Nearing completion is another project—compiling a dictionary for the Macho dialect of the Kurdish language, the first form of Kurdish used for writing over a century ago. With more than 35,000 words in this Macho dictionary, Khaleghi hopes it will be a step toward keeping the language alive.  Also known as Hawrami, the dialect is mainly spoken in the Hawraman area past Halabja, close to the Iranian border and in pockets across the southern fringes of Iraq’s Kurdistan region. Both the Kakai and Shabaks speak a form of Macho.

WORD: Rafiq Salih and his brother are heading an initiative at Zheen Archives to save as many manuscripts, poems and items that can tell the world about Kurdish heritage. Lack of money and Daesh’s aggression as well as time are culprits in threatening artefacts.

WORD: Rafiq Salih and his brother are heading an initiative at Zheen Archives to save as many manuscripts, poems and items that can tell the world about Kurdish heritage. Lack of money and Daesh’s aggression as well as time are culprits in threatening artifacts.

So it is Written

Not too far down the road from the Kurdish Heritage Institute, there is a large concrete complex which houses the Zheen Archive. Zheen is Kurdish for life. 

There, two brothers have committed themselves to the collection and preservation of ancient Kurdish manuscripts, documents and images that serve as testament to the contribution of Kurdish intellectuals in the greater Middle East. These include newspaper clippings about Kurds or poetry written by Kurds, or foreign language books on Kurds penned by foreigners.

The bookshelves are lined with items that would make any Arabist salivate, such as Dar-ul-Islam, a travel-memoir by Mark Sykes of Sykes-Picot fame, dated 1908; or another one titled To Mesopotamia and Kurdistan in Disguise by Major Ely Banister Soane. Soane served as a political officer of Great Britain in northern Iraq from 1919 to 1921, and is sometimes referred to as Kurdistan’s “Lawrence of Arabia.”

“In the Ottoman days, people tended to identify themselves according to the village they came from, and not their ethnicity — all this changed after World War I,” explains Rafiq Salih, director of the Zheen Archive. “So for example, Osman bin Dawoud Al Erzerumi, who was an intellectual from the city of Erzerum [now part of Turkey], wrote in Arabic, but he was a Kurd.” 
In that period, Salih explains, learned men wrote in Arabic, Persian or Ottoman Turkish, “Writing in Kurdish on academic issues, on Islam or history, was looked down upon. It was seen as backward. Only poetry was written in Kurdish and that only became fashionable in the latter half of the 19th and the early 20th centuries.” 

A book authored by Erzerumi — dated about 300 years ago — is currently among the oldest documents at Zheen Archives. It was obtained in a village somewhere in Iran’s Kurdistan, but its original provenance was the city of Kars in Turkey. Salih shows scans of the 254-page book, titled Tafsir Al Mushkilat Wa Kashif Al Ughlutat (Explaining problems and revealing misconceptions), which points out the perils of some authors misinterpreting the Quran. Written in the calligraphy style of the period, it is special in that it references 400-500 other sources.

Three handwritten copies exist of this book; one is currently in Saudi Arabia, and the other in Turkey. Anything dating before the 1920s was handwritten, explains Salih, as the printing press was only brought to Iraq’s Kurdistan region in 1919 by Major Soane. “We have now digitized every Kurdish-language document that we have in our possession up to 1975–newspapers, books, and letters,” he says. “These documents are treated like a patient who goes to the hospital. We make sure they are restored and preserved.” “We have items in this library that money cannot buy. If anything were to happen, and these books were gone, that means Kurdish history is gone,” says Salih. 

Zheen Archives emerged as a private initiative, not a government project, in 2004, when Rafiq and Sadiq Salih decided to work on establishing a Kurdish national archive. “Every country should have a national library and archive—that is the duty of the government,” explains Rafiq. But [Iraq’s] Kurdistan region has had a government since 1992 and until now they haven’t done it. So after the fall of Saddam, my brother and I felt somebody needed to work on it or else it would never get done.”

With more than 40,000 historical documents, this ambitious endeavor has resulted in what Salih calls “the richest library of its kind in this area.” They have printed more than 176 books, and all items are categorized according to language…Kurdish, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Ottoman Turkish, French or English. 

Salih’s brother, Sadiq, is in charge of collecting and managing the Archives’ department for photographs and images.
The archive has amassed thousands of images, with some prominent families donating rare collections. It also has rare photos of the ill-fated Kurdish Republic of Mahabad (1946-1947).

But like the Kurdish Heritage Institute, the regional government’s budget cuts have also hit the archive hard. As a non-governmental organization, they receive some funding but, since the cuts, most of the staff has been working on a volunteer basis. “I think we — as Kurds — are going in the wrong direction,” laments Sadiq Salih. “All remnants of our past are getting damaged day by day, and will be lost forever if we don’t take this work seriously now. The new generations are not aware either, and they are not very concerned.  This is the duty of our government, because frankly if they fail to provide adequate support to protect and preserve Kurdish history and culture, then they will become responsible for its loss.” 

 

Social Streams

Comments

comments

Facebook Comments

Post a comment